Base of prepositions and preverbs with the basic meanings of "forward" "through" and a wide range of extended senses such as "in front of" "before" "early" "first" "chief" "toward" "against" "near" "at" "around"
▲ Derivatives include far, paradise, afford, first, protein, veneer, probe, privy, pristine, priest.
Basic form *per
and extended form *peri
1. a. turnverein
from Middle High German vereinen
, to unite, from Old High German far-
; b. farklempt
from Yiddish farklemmen
, to clamp, choke up, from Middle High German verklemmen
, from Old High German far-
; c. veer2
from Middle Dutch vieren
, to let out, slacken; d.
Germanic compound *fer-getan
); e. frump
from Middle Dutch verrompelen
, to wrinkle. a-d
all from Germanic *fer-
, used chiefly as an intensive prefix denoting destruction, reversal, or completion.
2. Suffixed (comparative) form *per-ero-, farther away. far from Old English feor(r), far, from Germanic *fer(e)ra.
3. per, per-; paramount, paramour, parget, parterre, parvenu from Latin per, through, for, by.
4. peri-; perissodactyl from Greek peri, around, near, beyond.
5. a. pantoum
from Sanskrit pari-
, couch; b. paradise
from Avestan pairi-
, around; c. bard2
from Old Persian pari
, around, over; d.
Old Iranian compound *pari-vāraka-
all from Indo-Iranian *pari-
6. perestroika from Old Russian pere-, around, again, from Slavic *per-.
Zero-grade form *pr̥-
1. a. for from Old English for, before, instead of, on account of; b. for- from Old English for-, prefix denoting destruction, pejoration, exclusion, or completion. Both a and b from Germanic *fur, before, in.
2. Extended form *pr̥t-. forth; afford from Old English forth, from Germanic *furth-, forward.
3. Suffixed (comparative) form *pr̥-tero-. further from Old English furthra, furthor, farther away, from Germanic *furthera-.
, with o-grade form *por-
); b. porrect
from Latin por-
, forth, forward. Both a
from Latin por-
5. Suffixed form *pr̥-sōd. parget from Latin porrō, forward.
Extended zero-grade form *pr̥ə-
Suffixed (superlative) form *pr̥ə-mo-
. a. former2
from Old English forma
, first, from Germanic *fruma-
; b. foremost
from Old English formest
, first, from Germanic *frumista-
Latin compound prandium
, "first meal" late breakfast, lunch (probably < *prām-d-ium
; second element *-(e)d-
, to eat; see ed-
2. Suffixed (superlative) form *pr̥ə-isto-. first from Old English fyrst, fyrest, first, from Germanic *furista-, foremost.
3. Suffixed form *pr̥ə-wo-. a. prow from Greek prōira, forward part of a ship, from analogically suffixed form *prōw-arya; b. protein, protist, proto-, proton from Greek prōtos, first, foremost, from suffixed (superlative) form *prōw-ato-. Both a and b from Greek *prōwo-, first, foremost.
4. Suffixed form *pr̥ə-i. arpent from Latin arepennis, half-acre (second element obscure), from Gaulish ari (combining form are-), before, from Celtic *(p)ari, *are.
Extended form *pr̥əā̆
1. a. fore
from Old English fore
, before; b. vorlage
from Old High German fora
, before; c. before
from Old English beforan
, before, from Germanic prefixed and suffixed form *bi-fora-na
, in the front (*bi-
, at, by; see ambhi
all from Germanic *fura
2. para-1; palfrey from Greek para, beside, alongside of, beyond.
3. Purana from Sanskrit purā, before.
Extended form *prō̆
1. a. frae
from Old Norse frā
, from, from Germanic *fra
, forward, away from; b.
, completely, in compounds (see ed-
2. Suffixed form *prō̆-mo-. a. frame, from from Old English fram, forward, from, from Germanic *fram, from; b. furnish, furniture, veneer from Old French f(o)urnir, to supply, provide, from Germanic derivative verb *frumjan, to further, from Germanic *frum, forward; c. pram2 from Czech prám, raft.
3. Suffixed form *prō-wo-. a. (i) Frau, Fräulein from Old High German frouwa, lady; (ii) Freya from Old Norse freyja, lady. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *frōwō-, lady, lengthened-grade feminine of *frawan-; lord; b. Frey from Old Norse Freyr, from Germanic *frawa-, alteration of *frawan-. lord; c. form *prō-wo-, independently created in Slavic. naprapathy from Old Church Slavonic pravŭ, true.
4. pride, pro1, pro-1, prodigality, proud, prowess; improve, purchase from Latin prō, prō̆-, before, for, instead of.
5. Suffixed form *prō-no-. prone from Latin prōnus, leaning forward.
Possible suffixed form *pro-ko-
from Latin compound reciprocus
, alternating, "backward and forward" (*re-ko-
, backward; see re-
7. Suffixed adverb *pro-kwe. a. approach, rapprochement, reproach from Latin prope, near; b. suffixed form *prokw-inkwo-. propinquity from Latin propinquus, near; c. suffixed (superlative) form *prokw-isamo-. proximate; approximate from Latin proximus, nearest.
, growing well or straightforward (*bhw-o-
, to grow; see bheuə-
from Latin probus
, upright, good, virtuous.
9. pro-2 from Greek pro, before, in front, forward.
10. Suffixed (comparative) form *pro-tero-. hysteron proteron, Proterozoic from Greek proteros, before, former.
11. Prakrit from Sanskrit pra-, before, forth.
12. Celtic *ro-, intensive prefix. galore from Old Irish roar, enough, from Celtic compound *ro-wero-, sufficiency (*-wero-, from root *wer-, also the source of Old Irish feraid, he supplies, provides).
Extended forms *prai-
1. a. pre-
from Latin prae
, before; b.
2. Suffixed (comparative) form *prei-yos-. prior2 from Latin prior, former, higher, superior.
3. Suffixed form *prei-wo-. a. private, privilege, privity, privy; deprive from Latin prīvus, single, alone (< "standing in front" "isolated from others"); b. proper, property; appropriate, expropriate, proprioception, proprioceptor, proprium from Latin proprius, one's own, particular (< prōprīvō, in particular, from the ablative of prīvus, single; prō, for; see V. 4.).
Extended form *preis-
Suffixed (superlative) form *preis-mo-
. (i) premier
from Latin prīmus
; ablative plural prīmīs
), first, foremost; (ii) prince
from Latin compound prīnceps
, "he who takes first place" leader, chief, emperor (-ceps
"-taker"; see kap-
suffixed form *preis-tano-
from Latin prīstinus
, former, earlier, original.
Extended form *pres-
in compound *pres-gwu-
, "going before" (*gw-u-
, going; see gwā-
, Prester John
from Greek presbus
, old, old man, elder.
VIII. Extended form *proti. pros- from Greek pros, against, toward, near, at.
[Pokorny 2. A. per 810.]