skel- / Indo-European roots

skel-1

To cut.

Derivatives include scalp, skill, cutlass, half, scalpel, sculpture.

1.
a. shell from Old English scell, sciel, shell;
b. scagliola from Italian scaglia, chip. Both a and b from Germanic *skaljō, piece cut off, shell, scale.
2.
a. shale from Old English sc(e)alu, husk, shell;
b. scale1 from Old French escale, husk, shell. Both a and b from Germanic *skalō.
3.
a. scall from Old Norse skalli, bald head (< "closely shaved skull");
b. scalp from Middle English scalp, top of the head, from a source akin to Old Norse skalpr, sheath, shell. Both a and b from Germanic *skal-.
4. scale3, skoal from Old Norse skāl, bowl, drinking vessel (made from a shell), from Germanic *skēlō.
5. shield from Old English scield, shield (< "board"), from Germanic *skelduz.
6.
a. skill from Old Norse skil, reason, discernment, knowledge (< "incisiveness");
b. sheldrake from Middle English scheld, variegated, from a Low German source akin to Middle Dutch schillen, to diversify, with past participle schillede, separated, variegated. Both a and b from Germanic *skeli-.
7. school2, shoal2 from Middle Low German schōle, troop, or Middle Dutch scōle, both from Germanic *skulō, a division.
8. Suffixed variant form *kel-tro-. coulter, cultrate, cutlass from Latin culter, knife.
9. Suffixed zero-grade form *skl̥-yo-. scalene from Greek skallein, to stir up, hoe (> skalenos, uneven).
10. Extended root *skelp-.
a. shelf from Middle Low German schelf, shelf (< "split piece of wood"), from Germanic *skelf-;
b. possibly Germanic *halbaz (< variant root *kelp-), divided. half, halve from Old English healf, half;
c. perhaps variant *skalp-. scalpel, sculpture from Latin scalpere, to cut, scrape, with derivative sculpere (originally as the combining form of scalpere), to carve.

[Pokorny 1. (s)kel- 923.]


skel-2

To be under an obligation.

O-grade (perfect) form *skol-. shall from Old English sceal (used with the first and third person singular pronouns), shall, from Germanic *skal, I owe, hence I ought.

[Pokorny 2. (s)kel- 927.]



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