Should life truly exist on an exoplanet, detecting nitrogen as well as oxygen could help astronomers verify the oxygen's biological origin by ruling out certain ways oxygen can be produced abiotically
, or through means other than life.
2] release is both biotically and abiotically
However, PAHs are also known to form abiotically
as solar radiation interacts with space dust, which means they could have been present in the rocks that initially came together to form Mars.
Such large seeds are unlikely to be buried abiotically
(Chambers & MacMahon, 1994), and scatter-hoarding animals are an effective means of dispersal in arid and semiarid environments because they place large seeds in protective underground microsites.
Moreover, aqueous suspensions of nPM were cytotoxic to murine macrophages, possibly by generating reactive oxygen species abiotically
(Xia et al.
They will not refill abiotically
like some crackpots contend.
He added that the reactions that produce oil and gas abiotically
inside the crust could occur in the mantle, meaning life may be thriving deeper yet.
treated HDPE samples exposed to fungal stains showed greater reduction in tensile strength, breaking load and percentage of elongation compared to untreated HDPE (Fig 2, Fig 3 and Fig 4).
Do degrade abiotically
in a normal environment * Do degrade abiotically
under elevated temperatures in landfill * Do biodegrade * Do not emit methane even deep in landfill * Are safe for food contact * Contain no heavy metals The report has also confirmed that: * Pro-degradant additives are not harmful and have no negative environmental impact in the production and use phase * There is no evidence of bio-accumulation7 nor any harmful effect on the environment * There is no evidence of accumulation of pollutants * There is no evidence that degradable plastics encourage littering
The remaining 10% was fixed abiotically
, primarily by lightning [1, 2, 3].
However, recognition of these crystals as biosignatures requires careful assessment in order to differentiate them from abiotically
produced crystals (Kopp and Kirshvink 2008).
Sulphate reducers produce sulphide which can abiotically
react with the anode yielding two electron and sulphur (Habermann and Pommer 1991; Cooney et al.