above


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Related to above: Above and Beyond

a·bove

 (ə-bŭv′)
adv.
1. On high; overhead: the clouds above.
2. In heaven; heavenward.
3.
a. Upstairs: a table in the dining room above.
b. To a degree that is over zero: 15° above.
4. In or to a higher place.
5. In an earlier part of a given text: "Unlike the species discussed above, bees, ants, and wasps don't make males and females using combinations of special sex chromosomes" (Marlene Zuk).
6. In or to a higher rank or position: the ranks of major and above.
prep.
1. Over or higher than: a cool spring above the timberline.
2. Superior to in rank, position, or number; greater than: put principles above expediency.
3. Beyond the level or reach of: a shot that was heard above the music.
4. In preference to: chose quality above quantity.
5. Too honorable or proud to undertake: I am not above trying to bribe you. Do you think you are above bagging your own groceries?
6. More than: somewhat above normal temperature.
7. Upstream of: a dam positioned ten miles above the town.
8. North of: Minnesota is above Iowa.
n.
1. An earlier part of a given text: Refer to the above for that information.
2. The person or persons already referred to in a text: The above hereby affix their signatures.
adj.
Appearing earlier in the same text: flaws in the above interpretation.
Idiom:
above all
Over and above all other factors or considerations: Above all, tell the truth.

[Middle English aboven, from Old English abūfan : a-, on; see a-2 + būfan, above; see upo in Indo-European roots.]

above

(əˈbʌv)
prep
1. on top of or higher than; over: the sky above the earth.
2. greater than in quantity or degree: above average in weight.
3. superior to or prior to: to place honour above wealth.
4. too honourable or high-minded for: above petty gossiping.
5. too respected for; beyond: above suspicion; above reproach.
6. too difficult to be understood by: the talk was above me.
7. louder or higher than (other noise): I heard her call above the radio.
8. in preference to: I love you above all others.
9. north of: which town lies just above London?.
10. upstream from
11. above all most of all; especially
12. above and beyond in addition to
13. above oneself presumptuous or conceited
adv
14. in or to a higher place: the sky above.
15.
a. in a previous place (in something written)
b. (in combination): the above-mentioned clause.
16. higher in rank or position
17. in or concerned with heaven: seek the things that are above.
n
the above something that is above or previously mentioned
adj
mentioned or appearing in a previous place (in something written)
[Old English abufan, from a- on + bufan above]

a•bove

(əˈbʌv)

adv.
1. in, at, or to a higher place.
2. overhead or in the sky: A flock of birds circled above.
3. upstairs: the apartment above.
4. higher in rank, authority, or power: the officer above.
5. higher in quantity or number: books with 100 pages and above.
6. before or earlier, esp. in a book or other piece of writing: the remark quoted above. Compare below (def. 6).
7. in or to heaven: gone to her eternal rest above.
8. higher than zero on the temperature scale.
9. Zool. on the upper or dorsal side.
10. upstage. Compare below (def. 9).
prep.
11. in or to a higher place than; over: to fly above the clouds.
12. more in quantity or number than; in excess of: all children above 6 years of age.
13. superior in rank, authority, or standing to.
14. not subject or liable to: to be above suspicion.
15. of too fine a character for: above such trickery.
16. rather than; in preference to: to favor one child above the other.
17. beyond, esp. north of: six miles above Baltimore.
18. upstage of.
adj.
19. said, mentioned, or written above; foregoing: the above explanation.
n.
20. something that was said, mentioned, or written above.
21. the person or persons previously indicated: The above will stand trial.
22. heaven: a gift from above.
23. a higher authority: an order from above.
Idioms:
above all, most importantly; principally.
[before 900; Middle English above(n), Old English abufan, onbufan (a-, on- a-1 + bufan above =b(e) by1 + ufan, c. Old Frisian uva, Old Saxon, Old High German oban(a), Old Norse ofan above; akin to over); compare up]
usage: A few critics object to the use of above as an adjective (the above data) or as a noun (study the above) in referring to what has been mentioned earlier in a piece of writing. Both uses, however, have long been standard.

above

- Traces back to Old English bove, first meaning "north" and later taking the meaning of "overhead."
See also related terms for north.

above

over
1. used for talking about position and height

If something is higher than something else, you can say that the first thing is above or over the second thing.

He opened a cupboard above the sink.
There was a mirror over the fireplace.

If one thing is much higher than another thing, or there is a lot of space between them, you usually use above.

We heard a noise in the apartment above ours.

You usually use over when one thing is at a higher level than another thing, and the first thing is moving.

A plane flew over the city.
2. used for talking about measurements and quantities

Above and over are both used to talk about measurements, for example, when you are talking about a point that is higher than another point on a scale.

Any money earned over that level is taxed.
The temperature rose to just above forty degrees.

Be Careful!
Don't use above in front of a number when you are talking about a quantity or number of things or people. For example, don't say 'She had above thirty pairs of shoes'. You say 'She had over thirty pairs of shoes' or 'She had more than thirty pairs of shoes'.

They paid out over 3 million pounds.
He saw more than 800 children, dying of starvation.
3. used for talking about distance and time

You use over to say that a distance or period of time is longer than the one mentioned.

The mountain is over twelve thousand feet high.
Our relationship lasted for over a year.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.above - an earlier section of a written text; "for instructions refer to the above"
section, subdivision - a self-contained part of a larger composition (written or musical); "he always turns first to the business section"; "the history of this work is discussed in the next section"
Adj.1.above - appearing earlier in the same textabove - appearing earlier in the same text; "flaws in the above interpretation"
preceding - existing or coming before
Adv.1.above - at an earlier placeabove - at an earlier place; "see above"  
below - at a later place; "see below"
2.above - in or to a place that is higherabove - in or to a place that is higher  
at a lower place, below, beneath, to a lower place - in or to a place that is lower

above

preposition
1. over, upon, beyond, on top of, exceeding, higher than, atop He lifted his arms above his head.
over under, below, beneath, underneath
2. more than, over, exceeding, higher than, greater than, upwards of, beyond The temperature crept up to just above 40 degrees.
3. senior to, over, ahead of, in charge of, higher than, surpassing, superior to, more powerful than the people above you in the organization
senior to less than, lesser than, lower than, subordinate to, inferior to
4. better than, superior to She thought she was above doing the cleaning.
5. exempt from, superior to, beyond, immune to, not subject to, out of reach of, not exposed to, not liable to, not in danger of, not vulnerable to, insusceptible to He was a respected academic and above suspicion.
6. before, more than, rather than, beyond, instead of, sooner than, in preference to I want to be honest, above everything else.
adverb
1. overhead, upward, in the sky, on high, in heaven, atop, aloft, up above, skyward A long scream sounded from somewhere above.
2. earlier mentioned, previously mentioned, formerly mentioned, foregoing For additional information, contact any of the above.
adjective
1. preceding, earlier, previous, prior, foregoing, aforementioned, aforesaid write to the above address
above all most of all, chiefly, mainly, especially, essentially, basically, principally, primarily, in the first place, first of all, at the end of the day (informal), predominantly, most importantly, in essence, firstly and foremost, at bottom, when all is said and done (informal), before everything, beyond everything, elementally Above all, chairs should be comfortable.
above yourself arrogant, lordly, assuming, proud, swaggering, pompous, pretentious, contemptuous, conceited, blustering, imperious, overbearing, haughty, scornful, disdainful, presumptuous, high-handed, insolent, supercilious, high and mighty (informal), overweening, uppish (Brit. informal), too big for your boots or breeches I think you're getting a little bit above yourself.
Related words
prefixes super-, supra-, sur-
Translations
أعْلَاهفَوقفَوْقَفَوق مِنفَوق، أعْلَى مِن
nadshoravýšemimo
overbedre endhævet overhøjere oppeoven over
yläpuolellaylempänäyliylläyllä mainittu
iznad
felettfelülfelülrõlfentfent említett
aî ofanaî ofan, aî framansögîufyrir ofanhafinn yfiryfir
・・・の上にの上に
...보다 위에
atvirasaukščiauaukštaididesnis neisąžiningas
agrākārpusaugstākiepriekšlielāks nekā
vyššiezhora
nadzgorajveč kot
ovanför
เหนือ
…-in üstündeötesindetepedenüstündeüzerinde
ở trên

above

[əˈbʌv]
When above is an element in a phrasal verb, eg get above, look up the verb.
A. ADV
1. (= overhead) → arriba
seen from abovevisto desde arriba
the flat aboveel piso de arriba
2. (referring to heaven) from abovedel cielo, de lo alto
God, who is in heaven aboveDios en las alturas, Dios que vive en el reino de los cielos
the gods abovelos dioses en las alturas
3. (in status) → de más categoría
those abovelos de más categoría
orders from aboveórdenes fpl superiores or de arriba
4. (in text) → arriba, más arriba
see abovevéase (más) arriba
as set out abovesegún lo arriba expuesto
as I said abovecomo ya he dicho
5. (= more) boys of five and abovelos niños mayores de cinco años
seats are available at £5 and abovelas entradas cuestan a partir de 5 libras
B. PREP
1. (= higher than, over) → encima de
there was a picture above the fireplacehabía un cuadro encima de la chimenea
above the cloudsencima de las nubes
above ground: they were trapped 150ft above groundestaban atrapados a una altura de 150 pies sobre el nivel del suelo
vegetables that grow above groundlas verduras que crecen en la superficie
2,000 metres above sea level2.000 metros sobre el nivel del mar
I couldn't hear above the dinno podía oír con tanto ruido
2. (= upstream of) the Thames above Londonel Támesis más arriba de Londres
3. (of rank) he is above me in ranktiene una categoría superior a la mía, tiene un rango superior al mío; (of priority) above allsobre todo
he values honesty above all elseante todo valora la honestidad
he was, above all else, a musicianera, ante todo, un músico
see also station A4
4. (= morally superior) he's above that sort of thingestá muy por encima de esas cosas
he's not above a bit of blackmailes capaz hasta del chantaje
to get above o.spasarse (de listo)
5. (= beyond) it's above mees demasiado complicado para mí
6. (numbers) → más de, superior a
there were not above 40 peopleno había más de 40 personas
any number above 12cualquier número superior a 12
she can't count above tenno sabe contar más allá de diez
children above seven years of agelos niños mayores de siete años
temperatures above 40 degreestemperaturas fpl por encima de los 40 grados
temperatures well above normaltemperaturas fpl muy superiores a las normales
wage rises of 3% above inflationaumentos mpl de sueldo de un 3% por encima del nivel de inflación
see also average B
C. ADJ [fact, place] → sobredicho, arriba mencionado; [photo, illustration] → de arriba
D. N the above is a photo oflo anterior or lo que se ve arriba es una foto de ...
please translate the abovepor favor traduzca lo anterior

above

[əˈbʌv]
adv
(= overhead, higher up) → au-dessus
birds in the trees above → les oiseaux dans les arbres au-dessus
the flat above → l'appartement au-dessus
from above → d'en haut
view from above → vue plongeante
orders from above → ordres venus d'en haut, ordres d'en haut
(= more)
pupils aged 15 and above → les élèves à partir de 15 ans
Tickets are available at £5 and above → Les tickets sont disponibles à partir de 5 livres.
(in document)ci-dessus
Write to us at the address given above → Écrivez-nous à l'adresse mentionnée ci-dessus.
see above → voir ci-dessus
mentioned above → mentionné(e) ci-dessus
prep
(= over, higher up than) → au-dessus de
the flat above mine → l'appartement au-dessus du mien
He put his hands above his head → Il a mis ses mains au-dessus de sa tête.
(= more than) → plus de
children above seven years of age → les enfants de plus de sept ans
above 40 degrees → plus de quarante degrés
costing above £10 → coûtant plus de 10 livres
above all → par-dessus tout, surtout
Above all, don't panic → Surtout, ne t'affole pas.
(= superior to) → au-dessus de
the people above you in the government → les personnes au-dessus de vous dans le gouvernement
to be above sth → être au-dessus de qch
He thinks he's above all that → Il pense qu'il est au-dessus de ça.
to be above suspicion → être au-dessus de tout soupçon
to be above criticism → être au-dessus de toute critique
to get above oneself (British)se croire supérieur(e)
adjmentionné(e) ci-dessus
the above address → l'adresse mentionnée ci-dessus
n
the above → ce qui précède
Details of all the above can be found on our website → Vous pouvez trouver plus de détails sur ce qui précède sur notre site internet.
any of the above (people)l'une des personnes mentionnées ci-dessus; (things)l'une des choses mentionnées ci-dessus
none of the above (people)aucune des personnes mentionnées ci-dessus; (things)aucune des choses mentionnées ci-dessusabove board above-board, aboveboard [əˌbʌvˈbɔːrd] adj [person] → honnête; [action, arrangement, deal] → honnêteabove-ground [əˌbʌvˈgraʊnd] adj [pool, car park] → extérieur(e), en plein airabove-mentioned [əˌbʌvˈmɛnʃənd] adjmentionné(e) ci-dessus

above

adv
(= overhead)oben; (= in a higher position)darüber; from abovevon oben; look aboveschau nach oben; the apartment abovedie Wohnung oben or (above that one) darüber
(in text) → oben
prepüber (+dat); (with motion) → über (+acc); (= upstream of)oberhalb (+gen); above allvor allem, vor allen Dingen; I couldn’t hear above the dinich konnte bei dem Lärm nichts hören; he valued money above his familyer schätzte Geld mehr als seine Familie; to be above somebody/somethingüber jdm/etw stehen; he’s above that sort of thinger ist über so etwas erhaben; he’s not above a bit of blackmailer ist sich (dat)nicht zu gut für eine kleine Erpressung; it’s above my head or medas ist mir zu hoch; to get above oneself (inf)größenwahnsinnig werden (inf)
adj attr the above persons/figuresdie oben genannten or oben erwähnten Personen/Zahlen; the above paragraphder vorangehende or obige Abschnitt
n the above (= statement etc)Obiges nt (form); (= person)der/die Obengenannte or oben Genannte; (several) → die Obengenannten plor oben Genannten pl

above

:
above board
adj pred, aboveboard
adj attrkorrekt; open and aboveoffen und ehrlich
above-mentioned
adjoben erwähnt
above-named
adjoben genannt

above

[əˈbʌv]
1. advdi sopra, al di sopra; (in text) → prima, sopra
mentioned above → summenzionato/a
the flat above → l'appartamento di sopra or al piano di sopra
from above → dall'alto
the clouds above → le nuvole sovrastanti
children of 7 years or above → ragazzi dai 7 anni in su or a partire dai 7 anni
orders from above → ordini superiori or (che vengono) dall'alto
the address above → l'indirizzo di cui sopra
2. prepsopra
above all → soprattutto
above the clouds → al di sopra delle nuvole
the Thames above London → il Tamigi a monte di Londra
2,000 metres above sea level → 2.000 metri sopra il livello del mare
he is above me in rank → ha un grado superiore al mio
I couldn't hear above the din → non riuscivo a sentire in mezzo a or attraverso tutto quel frastuono
she's above that sort of thing → è superiore a queste cose
he's not above a bit of blackmail → non rifuggirebbe dal ricatto
it's above me → è troppo complicato per me, è al di sopra delle mie possibilità
to get above o.s. → montarsi la testa
children above 7 years of age → ragazzi al di sopra dei 7 anni (di età)
costing above £10 → più caro di 10 sterline

above

(əˈbav) preposition
1. in a higher position than. a picture above the fireplace.
2. greater than. The child's intelligence is above average.
3. too good for. The police must be above suspicion.
adverb
1. higher up. seen from above.
2. (in a book etc) earlier or higher up on the page. See above.
aˌbove-ˈboard adjective
open and honourable; not secret. His dealings are all above-board.
above all
most importantly. He is strong, brave and, above all, honest.

above

فَوْقَ nad over über πάνω από encima de yläpuolella au-dessus de iznad sopra ・・・の上に ...보다 위에 boven ovenfor ponad acima de над ovanför เหนือ üzerinde ở trên 在...上方

above

n. antecedente, precedente;
adv. arriba; la parte alta; más de o más que;
___ allsobre todo;
from ___desde lo alto, desde arriba;
prep. sobre, por encima de;
___ the heartencima del corazón;
a. antedicho-a, anterior.

above

adv arriba; prep encima de; (number) superior a, por encima de, arriba de; Keep your feet elevated above the level of your heart..Mantenga los pies elevados encima del nivel del corazón… Your sugar is above 500..Su azúcar está superior a (por encima de, arriba de) 500.
References in classic literature ?
answered a husky voice from above, and, running up, Meg found her sister eating apples and crying over the Heir of Redclyffe, wrapped up in a comforter on an old three-legged sofa by the sunny window.
Alone in his musty office in the Heffner Block above the Paris Dry Goods Company's store, he worked ceaselessly, building up something that he himself destroyed.
There was a wild scream of agony and then a dark arm shot up above the red foam.
Our white frame house, with a storey and half-storey above the basement, stood at the east end of what I might call the farmyard, with the windmill close by the kitchen door.
She held up her hands, strong, shapely hands, and surveyed them critically, drawing up her fawn sleeves above the wrists.
The summit is six thousand feet above the sea, but only forty-five hundred feet above the lake.
Some I have chosen of peculiar grace Elect above the rest; so is my will: The rest shall hear me call, and oft be warnd Thir sinful state, and to appease betimes Th' incensed Deitie, while offerd grace Invites; for I will cleer thir senses dark, What may suffice, and soft'n stonie hearts To pray, repent, and bring obedience due.
Above it lie the several minerals in their usual order, and over all is a coat of rich mould, ten or twelve feet deep.
In a hundred places they had applied the torch, and columns of dense smoke were rising above the city as though to blot out from the eye of heaven the horrid sights beneath.
The first of the above mentioned views was, at present, uppermost in his mind--the exploring of unknown regions.
Then, on the slight turn of the Lower Hope Reach, clusters of factory chimneys come distinctly into view, tall and slender above the squat ranges of cement works in Grays and Greenhithe.
It is there that I, intent on my own investigations, have passed and re-passed a hundred times the worn leonine face, white as the snow beneath him, furrowed with wrinkles like the seams and gashes upon the North Cape; the nervous hand, integrally a part of the mechanism of his flighter; and above all, the wonderful lambent eyes turned to the zenith.