abstract


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Related to abstract: abstract noun, Abstract class

ab·stract

 (ăb-străkt′, ăb′străkt′)
adj.
1. Considered apart from concrete existence: an abstract concept.
2. Not applied or practical; theoretical.
3. Difficult to understand; abstruse: abstract philosophical problems.
4. Denoting something that is immaterial, conceptual, or nonspecific, as an idea or quality: abstract words like truth and justice.
5. Impersonal, as in attitude or views.
6. Having an intellectual and affective artistic content that depends solely on intrinsic form rather than on narrative content or pictorial representation: abstract painting and sculpture.
n. (ăb′străkt′)
1. A statement summarizing the important points of a text.
2. Something abstract.
3. An abstract of title.
tr.v. (ăb-străkt′) ab·stract·ed, ab·stract·ing, ab·stracts
1.
a. To take away; remove: abstract the most important data from a set of records.
b. To remove without permission; steal: a painting that was abstracted from the museum.
2. To consider (an idea, for example) as separate from particular examples or objects: abstract a principle of arrangement from a series of items.
3. (ăb′străkt′) To write a summary of; summarize: abstract a long article in a paragraph.
4. To create artistic abstractions of (something else, such as a concrete object or another style): "The Bauhaus Functionalists were ... busy unornamenting and abstracting modern architecture, painting and design" (John Barth).
Idiom:
in the abstract
In a way that is conceptual or theoretical, as opposed to actual or empirical.

[Middle English, from Latin abstractus, past participle of abstrahere, to draw away : abs-, ab-, away; see ab-1 + trahere, to draw.]

ab·stract′er n.
ab·stract′ly adv.
ab·stract′ness n.

abstract

adj
1. having no reference to material objects or specific examples; not concrete
2. not applied or practical; theoretical
3. hard to understand; recondite; abstruse
4. (Art Terms) denoting art characterized by geometric, formalized, or otherwise nonrepresentational qualities
5. defined in terms of its formal properties: an abstract machine.
6. (Philosophy) philosophy (of an idea) functioning for some empiricists as the meaning of a general term: the word 'man' does not name all men but the abstract idea of manhood.
n
7. a condensed version of a piece of writing, speech, etc; summary
8. an abstract term or idea
9. (Art Terms) an abstract painting, sculpture, etc
10. in the abstract without reference to specific circumstances or practical experience
vb (tr)
11. to think of (a quality or concept) generally without reference to a specific example; regard theoretically
12. to form (a general idea) by abstraction
13. (also intr) to summarize or epitomize
14. to remove or extract
15. euphemistic to steal
[C14: (in the sense: extracted): from Latin abstractus drawn off, removed from (something specific), from abs- ab-1 + trahere to draw]

ab•stract

(adj. æbˈstrækt, ˈæb strækt; n. ˈæb strækt; v. æbˈstrækt for 11-14, ˈæb strækt for 15 )

adj.
1. thought of apart from concrete realities, specific objects, or actual instances: an abstract idea.
2. expressing a quality or characteristic apart from any specific object or instance: an abstract word like justice.
3. theoretical; not applied or practical.
4. difficult to understand; abstruse.
5. emphasizing line, color, and nonrepresentational form: abstract art.
n.
6. a summary of a text, technical article, speech, etc.
7. an abstract idea or term.
8. an abstract work of art.
9. something that concentrates in itself the essential qualities of anything more extensive or more general.
v.t.
10. to draw or take away; remove.
11. to divert or draw away the attention of.
12. to steal.
13. to consider as a general quality or characteristic apart from specific objects or instances.
14. to make an abstract of; summarize.
Idioms:
in the abstract, without reference to a specific object or instance; in theory.
[1400–50; late Middle English: withdrawn from worldly interests < Medieval Latin abstractus, Latin: past participle of abstrahere to drag away, divert = abs- abs- + trahere to draw, pull; compare tract1]
ab•stract′er, n.
ab•stract′ly, adv.
ab•stract′ness, n.

abstract


Past participle: abstracted
Gerund: abstracting

Imperative
abstract
abstract
Present
I abstract
you abstract
he/she/it abstracts
we abstract
you abstract
they abstract
Preterite
I abstracted
you abstracted
he/she/it abstracted
we abstracted
you abstracted
they abstracted
Present Continuous
I am abstracting
you are abstracting
he/she/it is abstracting
we are abstracting
you are abstracting
they are abstracting
Present Perfect
I have abstracted
you have abstracted
he/she/it has abstracted
we have abstracted
you have abstracted
they have abstracted
Past Continuous
I was abstracting
you were abstracting
he/she/it was abstracting
we were abstracting
you were abstracting
they were abstracting
Past Perfect
I had abstracted
you had abstracted
he/she/it had abstracted
we had abstracted
you had abstracted
they had abstracted
Future
I will abstract
you will abstract
he/she/it will abstract
we will abstract
you will abstract
they will abstract
Future Perfect
I will have abstracted
you will have abstracted
he/she/it will have abstracted
we will have abstracted
you will have abstracted
they will have abstracted
Future Continuous
I will be abstracting
you will be abstracting
he/she/it will be abstracting
we will be abstracting
you will be abstracting
they will be abstracting
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been abstracting
you have been abstracting
he/she/it has been abstracting
we have been abstracting
you have been abstracting
they have been abstracting
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been abstracting
you will have been abstracting
he/she/it will have been abstracting
we will have been abstracting
you will have been abstracting
they will have been abstracting
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been abstracting
you had been abstracting
he/she/it had been abstracting
we had been abstracting
you had been abstracting
they had been abstracting
Conditional
I would abstract
you would abstract
he/she/it would abstract
we would abstract
you would abstract
they would abstract
Past Conditional
I would have abstracted
you would have abstracted
he/she/it would have abstracted
we would have abstracted
you would have abstracted
they would have abstracted
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.abstract - a concept or idea not associated with any specific instanceabstract - a concept or idea not associated with any specific instance; "he loved her only in the abstract--not in person"
right - an abstract idea of that which is due to a person or governmental body by law or tradition or nature; "they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights"; "Certain rights can never be granted to the government but must be kept in the hands of the people"- Eleanor Roosevelt; "a right is not something that somebody gives you; it is something that nobody can take away"
concept, conception, construct - an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances
absolute - something that is conceived or that exists independently and not in relation to other things; something that does not depend on anything else and is beyond human control; something that is not relative; "no mortal being can influence the absolute"
teacher - a personified abstraction that teaches; "books were his teachers"; "experience is a demanding teacher"
thing - a special abstraction; "a thing of the spirit"; "things of the heart"
2.abstract - a sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theoryabstract - a sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory
summary, sum-up - a brief statement that presents the main points in a concise form; "he gave a summary of the conclusions"
brief - a condensed written summary or abstract
apercu - a short synopsis
epitome - a brief abstract (as of an article or book)
Verb1.abstract - consider a concept without thinking of a specific exampleabstract - consider a concept without thinking of a specific example; consider abstractly or theoretically
consider, regard, view, reckon, see - deem to be; "She views this quite differently from me"; "I consider her to be shallow"; "I don't see the situation quite as negatively as you do"
2.abstract - make off with belongings of othersabstract - make off with belongings of others  
steal - take without the owner's consent; "Someone stole my wallet on the train"; "This author stole entire paragraphs from my dissertation"
3.abstract - consider apart from a particular case or instance; "Let's abstract away from this particular example"
look at, deal, consider, take - take into consideration for exemplifying purposes; "Take the case of China"; "Consider the following case"
4.abstract - give an abstract (of)abstract - give an abstract (of)    
sum up, summarize, summarise, resume - give a summary (of); "he summed up his results"; "I will now summarize"
Adj.1.abstract - existing only in the mindabstract - existing only in the mind; separated from embodiment; "abstract words like `truth' and `justice'"
nonrepresentational - of or relating to a style of art in which objects do not resemble those known in physical nature
impalpable, intangible - incapable of being perceived by the senses especially the sense of touch; "the intangible constituent of energy"- James Jeans
concrete - capable of being perceived by the senses; not abstract or imaginary; "concrete objects such as trees"
2.abstract - not representing or imitating external reality or the objects of natureabstract - not representing or imitating external reality or the objects of nature; "a large abstract painting"
nonrepresentational - of or relating to a style of art in which objects do not resemble those known in physical nature
3.abstract - dealing with a subject in the abstract without practical purpose or intention; "abstract reasoning"; "abstract science"
theoretical - concerned with theories rather than their practical applications; "theoretical physics"

abstract

noun
1. summary, résumé, outline, extract, essence, summing-up, digest, epitome, rundown, condensation, compendium, synopsis, précis, recapitulation, review, abridgment If you want to submit a paper, you must supply an abstract.
summary expansion, enlargement
verb
1. extract, draw, pull, remove, separate, withdraw, isolate, pull out, take out, take away, detach, dissociate, pluck out The author has abstracted poems from earlier books.
extract add, combine, inject

abstract

adjective
1. Existing only in concept and not in reality:
2. Concerned primarily with theories rather than practical matters:
noun
A short summary or version prepared by cutting down a larger work:
verb
1. To remove from association with:
2. To give a recapitulation of the salient facts of:
Informal: recap.
Translations
((فَنْ تَجْرِيدِيتَلْخِيص لِكِتَاب أو مَقَالَةمُجَرَّد مَحْسُوسنَظَرِيّ
abstraktníshrnutísouhrnvýtahvýtažek
abstraktresumeuddrag
abstraktne
abstraktiabstraktioaineellistumaerillinenkäsite
apstrakcijaapstraktansažetak
elvontrezümé
afstrakt, óhlutbundinnóhlutbundinn, óhlutstæîurútdráttur, ágrip
抽象的な
추상적인
abstraktusreziumėsantrauka
abstraktskopsavilkumsrezumējums
abstraktný
abstraktenpovzetek
abstraktknyckanallasnostjäla
ที่เป็นนามธรรม
trừu tượng

abstract

A. [ˈæbstrækt] ADJabstracto
B. [ˈæbstrækt] N
1. (= summary) → resumen m, sumario m
2. (Art) → pintura f abstracta
3. in the abstracten abstracto
C. [æbˈstrækt] VT
1. (= remove) → quitar (Chem) → extraer
2. (= steal) → sustraer, robar
3. (= summarize) [+ book, article] → resumir
4. to abstract o.sabstraerse (from de) → ensimismarse
D. [ˈæbstrækt] CPD abstract art Narte m abstracto
abstract expressionism Nexpresionismo m abstracto
abstract noun Nnombre m abstracto

abstract

[ˈæbstrækt]
adj
[idea, concept, thinking, reasoning] → abstrait(e)
(ART) [art, painting, sculpture] → abstrait(e)
n
(= summary) → résumé m
in the abstract → dans l'abstrait
[æbˈstrækt] vt (= extract) → extraire
to abstract sth from sth → extraire qch de qch

abstract

1
adj (all senses) → abstrakt; abstract nounAbstraktum nt, → abstraktes Substantiv
n(kurze) Zusammenfassung; in the abstractabstrakt

abstract

2
vtabstrahieren; informationentnehmen (from aus)

abstract

[adj, n ˈæbstrækt; vb æbˈstrækt]
1. adjastratto/a
2. n (summary) → riassunto, sommario; (picture) → opera astratta
in the abstract → in teoria, in astratto
3. vt (remove) → estrarre; (summarize) → riassumere

abstract

(ˈӕbstrӕkt) adjective
1. (of a noun) referring to something which exists as an idea and which is not physically real. Truth, poverty and bravery are abstract nouns.
2. (of painting, sculpture etc) concerned with colour, shape, texture etc rather than showing things as they really appear. an abstract sketch of a vase of flowers.
noun
a summary (of a book, article etc).

abstract

نَظَرِيّ abstraktní abstrakt abstrakt θεωρητικός abstracto abstrakti abstrait apstraktan astratto 抽象的な 추상적인 abstract abstrakt abstrakcyjny abstracto, abstrato абстрактный abstrakt ที่เป็นนามธรรม soyut trừu tượng 抽象的

ab·stract

n. extracto, cantidad pequeña; resumen;
v. separar, alejar; extractar; resumir;
a. abstracto-a.
References in classic literature ?
HE doesn't kiss my hand like anything," she added, as if in abstract reflection.
They knew, as an abstract proposition, that in matters of business all men are to be accounted liars; but they could not but have been influenced by all they had heard from the eloquent agent, and were quite persuaded that the house was something they had run a risk of losing by their delay.
The short of the matter is, cousin," said he, his handsome face suddenly settling into an earnest and serious expression, "on this abstract question of slavery there can, as I think, be but one opinion.
I suppose, now," said Miss Ingram, curling her lip sarcastically, "we shall have an abstract of the memoirs of all the governesses extant: in order to avert such a visitation, I again move the introduction of a new topic.
Abstract your mind from the subject at present: you are too prone to covet your neighbour's goods; remember THIS neighbour's goods are mine.
one of these days (when I am dead and gone), as ideas enlarge and enlightenment progresses, the abstract merits of the profession now called swindl ing will be recognized.
It was occasioned, I suppose, by the reverend nature of respectability in the abstract, but I felt particularly young in this man's presence.
That good-looking young fellow, in a new fustian suit, who walks behind her, is not quite sure upon the question of hair in the abstract, when Eppie puts it to him, and thinks that perhaps straight hair is the best in general, but he doesn't want Eppie's hair to be different.
Faults in the abstract are each and all so uninviting, not to say alarming, but, associated with certain eyes and hair and tender little gowns, it is curious how they lose their terrors; and, as with vice in the poet's image, we end by embracing what we began by dreading.
Mine eyes he clos'd, but op'n left the Cell Of Fancie my internal sight, by which Abstract as in a transe methought I saw, Though sleeping, where I lay, and saw the shape Still glorious before whom awake I stood; Who stooping op'nd my left side, and took From thence a Rib, with cordial spirits warme, And Life-blood streaming fresh; wide was the wound, But suddenly with flesh fill'd up & heal'd: The Rib he formd and fashond with his hands; Under his forming hands a Creature grew, Manlike, but different sex, so lovly faire, That what seemd fair in all the World, seemd now Mean, or in her summd up, in her containd And in her looks, which from that time infus'd Sweetness into my heart, unfelt before, And into all things from her Aire inspir'd The spirit of love and amorous delight.
A short abstract of its contents will show its similarity to the meeting of King Richard and Friar Tuck.
There are some other articles; but these are the most important, of which I have read you an abstract.