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Related to adaxially: abaxial
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Adv.1.adaxially - in an adaxial manner
abaxially - in an abaxial manner
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different from that species in its strongly adaxially raised midrib and
with two vascular bundles, castaneous, lustrous, proximally and medially terete, distally with a shallow adaxial groove, essentially glabrous with a few scattered scales proximally, the scales similar to those of the rhizome, the petiole base provided with an epipetiolar bud, the buds bearing a tuft of scales and usually associated with 1-3 roots; rachises glabrous, abaxially prominent and similar to the petioles, adaxially the castaneous tissue of the rachis visible proximally, buried in the lamina tissue distally; laminae (Fig.
5 cm, distinctly nerved mainly adaxially, thin in texture, canaliculate toward the base, green, sparsely and inconspicuously pale lepidote near the apex adaxially to glabrous, margins entire.
Silica cells occur both adaxially and abaxially in the leaf
5 mm apart, uniting to a marginal commissural vein, set at 50-55[degrees] to costae; hydathodes lacking; costae abaxially and adaxially with scales irregularly divided to amorphous, 0.
8 cm, coriaceous but not at all succulent, strongly canaliculate toward the base with a broad U-shaped channel mainly under water stress, without any distinct thicker median zone, green to bronze colored, upper and lower sides contrasting, abaxially densely and coarsely white-lepidote, nerved, adaxially glabrous and sparsely nerved, margins straight, laxly spinose, spines 1.
Calyx lobes small, [+-] persistent; corolla sympetalous or polypetalous, campanulate or tubular, or perianth uniseriate, [+-] tubular, parts free, basally saccate, glabrous or with hairs adaxially.
Other characters that relate these species to Hymenasplenium are the adaxially shallowly grooved rachises and costae, which were first observed in Asiatic species by Iwatsuki (1975).
5 cm long, abaxially completely covered by a coarse layer of white trichomes, adaxially sparsely and inconspicuously white lepidote except for the densely white lepidote apex, coarsely spinulose, spines sub-triangular, uncinate, blackish, 3-5 mm long, 8-20 mm apart, the basal ones prevailing antrorse, the upper ones prevailing retrorse.
Leaves simple and entire, normally petiolate, rarely sessile, usually opposite, rarely alternate or whorled; stipules absent or small and caducous, almost always with toothlike colleters in axil of leaf, sometimes on petiole, in a cluster adaxially at juncture of petiole and base of lamina or along midrib above, rarely with domatia abaxially in axils of veins.
Veins raised abaxially, immersed adaxially, main lateral veins 4-6 mm apart, with two or three rows of areoles between two adjacent lateral veins, with one or two included veinlets in each areole.
These are: #31, stele with leaf gaps in xylem absent [right arrow] present; #32, stele with leaf gaps in phloem absent [right arrow] present; #41, radial rachis/axis trace round-elliptical [right arrow] absent; #44, "C" shaped trace absent [right arrow] adaxially convex; and #46, position of protoxylem in rachis/axis toward no face [right arrow] adaxial.