Hays, "Industrial and Laboratory Alkylations," American Chemical Society, Washington, D.
The section Existing Alkylation Process and Waste Management below introduces the process--alkylation--concentrating on the management of fluoridic waste arising from HF used as catalyst.
Alkylation is an operation in petroleum refining which produces a high value blend for transport fuels, alkylate, with a high octane rating; it contains no aromatic compounds or olefins and is "essentially free of sulphur and other impurities" (Hommeltoft, 2003).
There are relatively few configurations of alkylation units, the primary differences being between the major licensors: UOP and ConocoPhillips (previously Phillips) for HF units, and DuPont/STRATCO and ExxonMobil for [H.
This reorganized edition has more emphasis on the applications of organic chemistry in medicine and agriculture and other fields, new problems, has new information on catalysis, tetrahedral intermediates and their impact on drug design, carbon alkylations
and their role in the preparation of barbiturates, and other additions.
Eight contributions address general aspects and historical background, Michael Addition, addition to carbonyl compounds, nucleophilic allylic alkylation
and hydroarylation of allenes, nucleophilic substitution on Csp 3 carbon atoms, unactivated alkenes, catalytic asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylations
in total synthesis, and industrial Friedel-Crafts chemistry.
The cross-linking of BUR with nitrogen nucleophiles involves alkylation
by allylic bromide, followed by deprotonation of the resulting ammonium bromide sail to give an allylic amine intermediate (Scheme 1; R(1)=H).