Caplan (2007) has outlined four biases in politics that lead voters to choose systematically wrong policies: antiforeign
bias, antimarket bias, pessimistic bias, and make- work bias.
But the scope and reach of the Chinese government's antiforeign
interventions make it imperative that the US government include such measures in its future toolbox of defensive trade actions.
Although Trump cannot by any stretch of the imagination belong to the 'unprotected,' his antiestablishment, anti-immigrant, and antiforeign
engagement rhetoric obviously resonated with the electorate.
64 (1997) ("In the 1880s a new tide of immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe, namely Italians, Slavs, Poles, Russians, Hungarians, Greeks, and Jews, broke the Nordic circle of Western and Northern Europeans, triggering antiforeign
sentiments centering on cultural prejudice and intolerance.
Arms racing could increase the chances of this new nationalism becoming antiforeign
in nature, rather than just reflecting patriotic pride in the nation's new achievements.
Seemingly overlooked by official American estimates, these hawks have no truck with engagement, are deeply antiforeign
and anti-American, and seek Chinese hegemony to be achieved through deception, strategic dominance, and the use of particularly effective weapons usually called in English, rather awkwardly, "assassins' maces" (shashoujian).
To him, it is wrong to portray the Tonghak-peasant coalition in 1894 as "a modern antiforeign
nationalist movement" (152).
At the same time there has been a growth of anti-Muslim and antiforeign
As a result of the antiforeign
climate of the Northern Expedition and the anti-Christian violence associated with it, the missionary enterprise suffered an exodus of missionaries and never regained its post-Boxer high point.
Intriguingly and perversely, the Protocols would wend their way to Japan, as David Goodman notes--the negative result of anti-Christian and antiforeign
prejudices, and "positively" in tribute to the supposed power and economic acumen of the Jews of the West.
Since 2007 poll results have consistently shown support for Caplan's antiforeign
10) It may have been this antiforeign
sentiment prevalent at that time that led the Acehnese elite, especially Orangkaya Maharaja Lela and other Councillors at court, to support the newly arrived Sayf al-Rijal, the Minangkabau ulama who was a Malay by birth, instead of al-Raniri, an Arab foreign-born ulama.