In summary of the above, it is postulated that the generated heat is carried off by the neutrino, and the antineutrino
, ejected with changed energy, that are produced, respectively, in the above nuclear decay reactions, and do so according to quantum mechanical selection rules that emerge from the quark-antiquark non-conservation of parity interaction.
Like its cousin the neutrino, a geoneutrino (an antineutrino
produced in Earth) can pass through Earth unimpeded and, researchers hope, into detectors built to catch it.
For example, in beta radiation an excess neutron turns into a proton and spews out an electron--a beta particle--and an antineutrino
The simplest explanation was that in addition to direct conversions, one antineutrino
could turn into another by first briefly changing into a proposed seventh type of neutrino--called sterile because it can't be detected directly.
Quarks without the strong force field are transformed into the decayed products as electron-positron and neutrino antineutrino
denoted as the "lepton composite"
He, coleader Atsuto Suzuki of Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, and their colleagues spent more than 2 years looking for telltale flickers in the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Antineutrino
Detector (KamLAND)--a tough, transparent balloon filled with 1,000 tons of baby oil, benzene, and fluorescent chemicals.
Now, an international team working at an antineutrino
detector in Japan reports that it has observed a particle shortfall that it attributes to this subatomic morphing act.
When a neutron decays in an unstable nucleus, the particle transforms into a proton, while an electron and an antineutrino
flee the scene.
The neutron's swan song, a process called beta decay, transforms the particle into a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino
If such antineutrino
data could be obtained, the resulting estimate of global radioactive heat production could shed light on what fraction of Earth's energy output is simply heat left over from the massive impact early in its history that created the moon, he remarks.
Their presence is "very strong evidence" that a muon antineutrino
can transform itself into an electron antineutrino
through a hypothetical process that theorists call neutrino oscillation, says Fred J.
This force is responsible for radioactivity and plays a central role in the decay of an isolated neutron into a proton, electron, and antineutrino