The millipedes that copy Apheloria polychroma use what is called Mullerian mimicry, where different species converge on a shared aposematic
(warning signal) to defend themselves against a common predator.
torridus is gradual and we suggest that possibly the mechanism responsible for high polymorphism in the species may be a aposematic
Adults often exhibited a strong startle or warning response when first handled (to be marked with identification numbers) by quickly flashing open the ventral forewings to expose the dorsal wing colors (bright blue or blue-green) and raising the bright red-orange abdomen in protest, possibly to advertise its toxic nature via its aposematic
animals have only short range sensory abilities (LariviEre and Messier, 1996b, 1998b), and the sensory abilities of C.
1993) and aposematic
coloration (Gamberale and Tullberg 1996; Gamberale-Stille and Tullberg 1999; Yachi and Higashi 1998), the preference for supernormal stimuli and caricatures (Ghirlanda and Enquist 1999, 2003; Ramachandran and Hirstein 1999; Zimmer 2003), changes in speech patterns (Martindale 2006), and extreme responses in certain forms of mental illness (Derenne 2010; Dunsmoor et al.
versicolor specimens could take some advantage from the possible aposematic
coloration of L.
It exists in two versions, the second published in 1832, and in the latter a certain "Citizen-General C--" advocates an aposematic
tactic almost identical with Kurtz's:
The role of predator selection on polymorphic aposematic
The bright and contrasting external colorations of many opistho-branchs have been considered to be aposematic
(Edmunds, 1987; Gosliner and Behrens, 1989; Rudman, 1991) because of the wealth of chemical defenses in these organisms (Cimino and Ghiselin, 2009) and experimental data suggesting unpalatability (Gosliner, 2001; Long and Hay, 2006; Haber et al.
Experimental support for aposematic
coloration in the salamander Ensatina eschscholtziixanthoptica: implication for mimicry of Pacific newts.
The vivid coloration is very probably aposematic
too, as the adults when physically persecuted will assume a "dymantic" posture with the red or orange hindwings exposed, and produce an foul-smelling froth of blood and air from the thoracic spiracles.
It is questionable if aposematic
coloration is involved as the snake is not known to be poisonous and is reluctant to bite.