2] connate or short-stalked with R3+4, 3) flagellum of the antenna uniquely specialized with long scales along posterior margin, except in the apical part, sometimes appressed
or short rough scales on anterior margin, 4) labial palpus with third segment very slender, longer than second segment, and 5) male genitalia with variable shaped valva and elongated juxta.
Stipe (70-)100-180(-200) x (5-)10-15(-20) mm, tapering upward, solid to hollow, fibrous, whitish to concolorous with pileus, covered by short or large, floccose, white appressed
scales toward the base, frequently in multi-annulate arrangement.
24 (female); anterior pronotal margin posteriorly concave when viewed dorsally, area behind vertex strongly raised, bituberculate, bearing a pair (1 + 1) of closely appressed
tumescences to either side of longitudinal midline, the tops of these tumescences bearing small, deep, circular pits; anterolateral angles of prothorax produced, curving forward, coming to acute points hidden beneath posterior margins of eyes, posterior margin of anterior lobe with a pair (1 + 1) of prominent, rounded tubercles on either side of slightly raised longitudinal midline, posterior lobe with humeri raised, space between them bearing a pair (1 + 1) of widely separated, strongly raised, transversely ovate tumescences, the tops of these tumescences bearing deep, transverse pits.
Thyopsiella) is readily recognized by the very small plants, less than 1 mm wide, which are creeping on bark or rock, sometimes over larger bryophytes or lichens, and always tighly appressed
to the subtrate.
96%) clade diagnosed by five synapomorphies: proximal perigynia in each spike ascending to appressed
(character #3), perigynia relatively narrow (2.
4 mm wide, oblong-elliptic, minutely papillate-scabrescent with appressed
hairs distally, smooth (or nearly so) proximally, margins ciliate with hairs in fascicles on the shoulders, 2 prominent lateral veins and strongly 6-9-veined abaxially and 5-7-veined adaxially, pale brown to brown; beak conical, minutely papillate-scabrescent with appressed
hairs, margins ciliate with hairs in fascicles.
Also it is characterized by racemose inflorescences and appressed
indumenta on the young twigs (van der Werff 2002).
LEAF DESCRIPTION: NEEDLE-LIKE, 1/2" long, one stomatic line above and 2 to 5 lines beneath, acute or obtuse tip, tightly appressed
, curved toward stem tip.
First, algae in the lumina of the tubules are often pressed against the inner plasmalemma of the tubular cells; when nuclei of the appressed
tubular cells are apparent ( as in Fig.
Leaves tightly appressed
(imbricate) and scale-like.
The hairs are appressed
to erect and range in length from about 50 [[micro]meter] to 200 [[micro]meter].
Tergite 1 basally and laterally rusty yellow, apart from that bald, tergites 2-4 with appressed
, short, bristle-like, white hairs, without any hair-bands or fringes.