Two types of abnormalities were frequently observed with the two fungicides and the cocktail: asynapsis
and fragmented synaptonemal complexes (fragmented bivalent) (Fig.
drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and leads to substantial postmeiotic repression in spermatids.
This idea has been supported by different authors who suggested that genes that induce asynapsis
or desynapsis of homologous chromosomes could account for the origin of univalents in Metaphase I and of micronuclei in tetrads (Jenkins et al.
1]R and YL and one individual showed > 25% asynapsis
For each control and patient the numbers of pachytene nuclei showing asynapsis
, fragmented SC, dotted SC and thin and non-homogeneously stained SC, and the number of pachytene nuclei showing various associations of these abnormalities were quantified.
Two main obstacles that hinder alien gene transfer are hybrid sterility and chromosome asynapsis
(Maan et al.
In addition to these examples of genetic control of chromosome pairing, most cases of asynapsis
and desynapsis are best explained as genetic irregularities (mutation?