First, one of the more noteworthy aspects of his military campaigns for caliphal independence--which seems not to have been remarked upon previously--is that the caliph achieved his military successes almost entirely without the aid of Turkish mamluks; the sources state explicitly that all of his slave soldiery (as opposed to his free soldiery, which included Turkmens as well as every other Muslim ethnic group) was recruited from Byzantium and Armenia--and these mamluks apparently maintained their position quite well against the various Seljuq and atabeg armies, which consisted largely of Turks, both Turkmens and mamluks:
Al-Husayni, Akhbar 106; al-Bundari, Zubdat al-nusra, 175, who points out that this was only after the atabeg Aqsunqur was assassinated by the Isma'ilis (for this event, ibid.
He took his pseudonym Sa'di from the name of the local Atabeg
or Prince, Sa'd bin Zangi.
In 1137 Zangi, the Turkish atabeg (governor) of Mosul and Aleppo (in today's Iraq and Syria), attacked first the crusader city of Antioch and then Muslim Damascus: the fall of either of these cities would leave Jerusalem open to attack.
They escorted him and Atabeg Unur on to the Temple Mount, the thoroughly Christianised headquarters of the Templars.
Obtuvo grandes exitos militares sobre el atabeg
de Damasco Tughtekin, consiguiendo la conquista de la plaza de Arcas (1108).
decide concentrar sus esfuerzos en Siria, desde donde iniciara una serie de expediciones, venciendo las sediciones internas y consolidando la unidad musulmana (65).
Louise Marlow's chapter, "Teaching Wisdom: A Persian Work of Advice for Atabeg
Ahmad of Luristan" (pp.
In the spring of 1108 Gervase and his men were captured by Toghtekin, Atabeg of Damascus, and then offered to the king in exchange for the cities of Acre, Haifa, and Tiberias.
Most of his picture of Islam is based upon a series of imaginary conversations of Kerbogha, Atabeg of Mosul, who was defeated by the crusaders outside Antioch in June, 1098.
Meisami as Arslan Aba ibn Aq Sunqur, an atabeg
in Syria appointed by the Saljuqs), rather than evidence that the book is specifically for the edification and training of a prince or princes.
These Turkish atabegs
guaranteed a period of relative calm defending the country from the continual attacks of their turbulent neighbours namely the Shabankarais and the parallel Salghurid line who had been fighting and vying for control of Fars.