15) Tom Humphries is the first to offer this definition of audism
Bauman (2004, page 239) describes audism as "discrimination against individuals based on hearing ability" and identifies three 'faces' of audism (page 245) as follows:
Stremlau (2003, page 186) suggests a link between audism and Said's Orientalism, in the sense that "imperialism institutionalizes itself and attempts to perpetuate its values on the oppressed culture.
Bauman (2004, page 245) argues that "incorporating phonocentrism into discussions of audism allows us to see what is usually an invisible orientation within which institutions (ie, medicine, education, psychology, governments, etc) derive their construction of deafness-as-pathology", something which will be illuminated by the empirical excerpts in this section.
This may serve the purpose asserted above by hooks--that focusing on the "enemy" allows Deaf people to not challenge their own internalized audism, as well as their classism and racism.
Using the Derridean concept of phonocentrism, Bauman suggests that audism is deep-seated in modern society because having language has been defined as that which sets humans apart from animals, and because language has historically been defined as speech; thus, Deaf individuals are considered "less than" human.
Dysconscious audism and critical deaf studies: Deaf crit's analysis of unconscious internalization of hegemony within the Deaf community.
Current and former scholars and a past president from the university, as well as other schools in the US, describe the founding and early history of the institution, attitudes about deafness in the literary works of its first honorary degree recipient, John Carlin, its presidents, issues of audism
and paternalism, the debate among early teachers over math curriculum, racist attitudes on campus and in precollege programs, the history of women students, fundraising, and the architectural history of the university for the deaf.
This stage is partly defined by gaining an awareness of the inequity of audism, which is "the notion that one is superior based on one's ability to hear or behave in the manner of one who hears" (Humphries, n.
Counselors who understand the experiences of Deaf students, especially the detrimental effects of audism and the unique elements of the Deaf identity development process, will be better prepared to assist Deaf students as they negotiate these challenges and progress through the identity development process.
For one or two years I've been pushing very hard to address racism and audism
here at Gallaudet.
Contributors address the framework(s) of deaf studies, including the nature of colonialism and resistance in the history of deafhood as well as the nature of deaf convert culture and deaf theory, deaf perception and community as an outcome of study of coequality and transnational studies, language and literacy, including critical pedagogy and ASL videobooks, the decline of deaf clubs in the US, intersections and identities, as in dysconscious audism
and the need for deaf "herstory," and the question of disability, including whether people who are deaf have a disability.