Once mosquitoes learned odors in an aversive
manner, those odors caused aversive
responses on the same order as responses to DEET, which is one of the most effective mosquito repellents.
But there is a difference between finding something aversive
in the sense merely of wanting it not to occur (the only sense in which, on this third possibility, it should be necessary that we are averse to the feeling selected to be pain), and finding it aversive
in the sense in which we find actual pain aversive
Jun-Hyeong Cho, an assistant professor of cell biology and neuroscience and Woong Bin Kim, a postdoctoral researcher in Cho's lab, have now found that a population of hippocampal neurons project to both the amygdala and the mPFC, and that it is these neurons that efficiently convey information to these two brain areas to encode and retrieve fear memory for a context associated with an aversive
To advance in the abovementioned direction, the current study aimed to replicate and extend the previous findings by comparing the effect of three conditions on increasing tolerance to the aversive
functions induced by a cold pressor and an aversive
Lang (2000) noted that appeals and emotions are a part of a larger cognitive motivation system that, among other things, measures an appeal on a continuum from aversive
They further exhibit magnified neural and vascular reactions to aversive
Psychologists explore personality features that are socially aversive
and linked with various sorts of interpersonal difficulties and potentially destructive behaviors such as aggression, manipulation, and exploitation.
Many APIs have a bitter taste or have other aversive
sensory attributes, frequently learned anecdotally in the clinic.
Consistent findings have been reported in healthy and clinical populations, describing the increase in the BOLD response when aversive
affective faces are compared to neutral faces, mainly in the amygdala; frontal regions such as the superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventromedial cortex; temporal regions including the superior and medial temporal gyrus; other regions such as the fusiform gyrus, insula, anterior cingulate, among other structures [8-11].
Racism Theory Versus Social Identity Theory
For example, Hollands, Prestwich, and Marteau (2011) reported that participants in the conditioning intervention (using aversive
images) chose fruits as opposed to snacks in a behavioral choice task.
Sadly some dog trainers are still using aversive
and punishing methods in classes and privately.