Spermatozoa membrane of bulls and rams contains high PUFA resulting in more susceptible to ROS that leads to declined sperm mobility, viability and sperm-oocyte fusion due to a reduction in axonemal
protein phosphorylation .
beta heavy chain dynein dnah9: Cdna sequence, genomic structure, and investigation of its role in primary ciliary dyskinesia.
An immune response that cross-reacts with axonemal
or Schwann cell antigens is elicited and results in damage to the peripheral nerves.
Usually, the axoneme is formed by nine outer doublet microtubules and two central singlet microtubules (the 9+2 pattern); the active sliding of microtubules by axonemal
dyneins and proper assembly of all cytoskeletal elements is critical for sperm motility (Inaba, 2003).
To identify the factor inducing the flagellar movement of hyperactivated spermatozoa, demembranated spermatozoa that were deprived of their plasma membrane with nonionic detergent Triton X-100 were used because effect of ions and other molecules on the axonemal
movement could be examined directly.
Most of the exons with extremely high coverage (>1400X) appeared to come from a few genes [HYDIN, axonemal
central pair apparatus protein (HYDIN) and lysine (K)specific methyltransferase 2C (KMT2C, also known as MLL3)] and were likely caused by incompleteness (homologous regions not represented) in the hg19 reference genome (see online Supplemental Table 4); we therefore excluded mutations detected in those exons.
Absence of axonemal
arms in nasal mucosa cilia in Kartagener's syndrome.
1994), sperm motility and axonemal
protein phosphorylation (Aitken et al.
2010), thawing duration, time taken by the observer, and disordered functioning of axonemal
proteins may contribute towards the low motility rate.
Mammalian spermatozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and, thus, are very susceptible to ROS attack which results in a decreased sperm motility due to altered membrane permeability and fluidity, presumably by a rapid loss of intracellular ATP leading to axonemal
damage, decreased sperm viability, and increased midpiece morphology defects with deleterious effects on sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction (35-37).
A moving image of flagella: news and views on the mechanisms involved in axonemal
Several reproduction-related transcripts--for example, vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 2 (Ha-VEZPD2), vitellogenin (Ha-VTG1), sperm lysin (Ha-SL), fertilization protein (Ha-FP), tektin A1 (HaTekA1), axonemal