sup] In this case, the splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein joined together, drained into the hemiazygos vein, and ultimately entered the superior vena cava through the azygos vein
b) Infrahepatic IVC drains into the Azygos vein
(black straight arrow) that enters the thorax together with the aorta (star).
Measurements of the main PA lumen, ascending aorta, azygos vein
, and SVC, were obtained.
Absence of the azygos vein
associated with left superior vena cava.
Postulated mechanisms for the development of pleural effusions in patients with hepatic cirrhosis include: hypoalbuminemia and decreased oncotic pressure leakage of the plasma from the hypertensive azygos vein
, lymphatic leak from the thoracic duct, passage of ascitic fluid to the pleural space by way of lymphatic channels in the diaphragm, and transfer of peritoneal fluid directly via diaphragmatic defects (2).
An optional transthoracic impedance sensing lead can be placed in the azygos vein
to monitor respiration.
1,2) From the cisterna chyli, it ascends into the chest through the aortic hiatus, along the right side of the aorta, and continues posterior to the esophagus in the posterior mediastinum between the aorta and the azygos vein
The thoracic duct receives drainage from the abdominal cavities, and lies superior to the azygos vein
, close to the thoracic aorta (4).
sup] Differential diagnosis may include the azygos vein
which may follow a course behind the trachea before entering the superior vena cava, the thoracic outlet syndrome and esophageal dysphagia caused by ARSA, motility disorders, as well as mechanical and inflammatory diseases.
Both the IVC united and continued as azygos vein
in the thoracic cavity.
Right-sided PAPVR consists of anomalous drainage of a right pulmonary vein to superior vein cava, azygos vein
, coronary sinus, or inferior vena cava.