backbone

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back·bone

 (băk′bōn′)
n.
1. The vertebrate spine or spinal column.
2. Something, such as the keel of a ship, that resembles a backbone.
3. The main support or major sustaining factor: the backbone of a thesis.
4. Strength of character; determination: displayed grit and backbone in facing adversity.
5. Geology
a. A ridge forming the principal axis of a mountain.
b. The principal mountain ridge, range, or system of a region.
6. Chemistry The main chain of atoms in a polymer.
7. Computers A high-speed communications line that connects smaller, local networks to each other, especially in a wide area network.

back′boned′ adj.

backbone

(ˈbækˌbəʊn)
n
1. (Anatomy) a nontechnical name for spinal column
2. something that resembles the spinal column in function, position, or appearance
3. strength of character; courage
4. (Physical Geography) the main or central mountain range of a country or region
5. (Nautical Terms) nautical the main longitudinal members of a vessel, giving structural strength
6. (Computer Science) computing (in computer networks) a large-capacity, high-speed central section by which other network segments are connected

back•bone

(ˈbækˌboʊn)

n.
1. the spinal column; spine.
2. strength of character; resolution.
3. something resembling a backbone in appearance, position, or function.
4. spine (def. 6).
[1250–1300]

back·bone

(băk′bōn′)
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.backbone - a central cohesive source of support and stabilitybackbone - a central cohesive source of support and stability; "faith is his anchor"; "the keystone of campaign reform was the ban on soft money"; "he is the linchpin of this firm"
support - something providing immaterial assistance to a person or cause or interest; "the policy found little public support"; "his faith was all the support he needed"; "the team enjoyed the support of their fans"
2.backbone - fortitude and determinationbackbone - fortitude and determination; "he didn't have the guts to try it"
fortitude - strength of mind that enables one to endure adversity with courage
colloquialism - a colloquial expression; characteristic of spoken or written communication that seeks to imitate informal speech
3.backbone - the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cordbackbone - the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord; "the fall broke his back"
notochord - a flexible rodlike structure that forms the supporting axis of the body in the lowest chordates and lowest vertebrates and in embryos of higher vertebrates
chine - backbone of an animal
canalis vertebralis, spinal canal, vertebral canal - the canal in successive vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes
coccyx, tail bone - the end of the vertebral column in humans and tailless apes
vertebra - one of the bony segments of the spinal column
intervertebral disc, intervertebral disk - a fibrocartilaginous disc serving as a cushion between all of the vertebrae of the spinal column (except between the first two)
skeletal structure - any structure created by the skeleton of an organism
axial skeleton - the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
4.backbone - the part of a book's cover that encloses the inner side of the book's pages and that faces outward when the book is shelvedbackbone - the part of a book's cover that encloses the inner side of the book's pages and that faces outward when the book is shelved; "the title and author were printed on the spine of the book"
book, volume - physical objects consisting of a number of pages bound together; "he used a large book as a doorstop"
part, portion - something less than the whole of a human artifact; "the rear part of the house"; "glue the two parts together"
5.backbone - the part of a network that connects other networks together; "the backbone is the part of a communication network that carries the heaviest traffic"
connecter, connector, connective, connection, connexion - an instrumentality that connects; "he soldered the connection"; "he didn't have the right connector between the amplifier and the speakers"
meshwork, meshing, network, mesh, net - an open fabric of string or rope or wire woven together at regular intervals

backbone

noun
1. spinal column, back, spine, vertebrae, vertebral column She doubled over, snapping her backbone and breaking her arm.
2. foundation, support, base, basis, mainstay, bedrock the economic backbone of the nation
3. strength of character, will, balls (taboo slang), character, bottle (Brit. slang), resolution, resolve, nerve, daring, courage, determination, guts, pluck, stamina, grit, bravery, fortitude, toughness, tenacity, willpower, mettle, boldness, firmness, spunk (informal), fearlessness, steadfastness, moral fibre, hardihood, ballsiness (taboo slang), dauntlessness You might be taking drastic measures and you've got to have the backbone to do that.
Translations
الأساس، الأساس، الجُزء الأَهَـمالعَمود الفَقَريعُمُود فِقْرِيّ
páteřopora
rygradbasisfundament
selkäranka
colonne vertébralechaîne principale
kralježnica
gerincgerincegerincoszlophátgerinc
hrygguruppistaîa, meginstoî
背骨
등뼈
mugurkauls
coluna vertebralespinha dorsal
hrbtenica
ryggrad
กระดูกสันหลัง
xương sống

backbone

[ˈbækbəʊn] N
1. (Anat) → columna f vertebral, espina f dorsal
a patriot to the backboneun patriota hasta la médula
2. (fig) (= courage) → agallas fpl; (= strength) → resistencia f
the backbone of the organisationel pilar de la organización

backbone

[ˈbækbəʊn] n
(= spine) [person, animal] → colonne f vertébrale, épine f dorsale
(= mainstay)
He's the backbone of the organization → C'est sur lui que repose l'organisation.
(= guts, determination)
He has no backbone → Il n'a pas de cran.
He doesn't have the backbone to do it → Il n'a pas le cran de le faire.back-breaking backbreaking [ˈbækbreɪkɪŋ] adj [work, labour] → éreintant(e)back burner backburner [ˌbækˈbɜːrr] n
on the back burner → en veilleuse
to put sth on the back burner → mettre qch en veilleuseback catalogue n [musician] → anciens enregistrements mpl

backbone

[ˈbækˌbəʊn] n (also) (fig) → spina dorsale
the backbone of the organization → l'anima dell'organizzazione
he's got no backbone → è uno smidollato

back

(bӕk) noun
1. in man, the part of the body from the neck to the bottom of the spine. She lay on her back.
2. in animals, the upper part of the body. She put the saddle on the horse's back.
3. that part of anything opposite to or furthest from the front. the back of the house; She sat at the back of the hall.
4. in football, hockey etc a player who plays behind the forwards.
adjective
of or at the back. the back door.
adverb
1. to, or at, the place or person from which a person or thing came. I went back to the shop; He gave the car back to its owner.
2. away (from something); not near (something). Move back! Let the ambulance get to the injured man; Keep back from me or I'll hit you!
3. towards the back (of something). Sit back in your chair.
4. in return; in response to. When the teacher is scolding you, don't answer back.
5. to, or in, the past. Think back to your childhood.
verb
1. to (cause to) move backwards. He backed (his car) out of the garage.
2. to help or support. Will you back me against the others?
3. to bet or gamble on. I backed your horse to win.
ˈbacker noun
a person who supports someone or something, especially with money. the backer of the new theatre.
ˈbackbite verb
to criticize a person when he is not present.
ˈbackbiting noun
Constant backbiting by her colleagues led to her resignation.
ˈbackbone noun
1. the spine. the backbone of a fish.
2. the chief support. The older employees are the backbone of the industry.
ˈbackbreaking adjective
(of a task etc) very difficult or requiring very hard work. Digging the garden is a backbreaking job.
ˌbackˈdate verb
1. to put an earlier date on (a cheque etc). He should have paid his bill last month and so he has backdated the cheque.
2. to make payable from a date in the past. Our rise in pay was backdated to April.
ˌbackˈfire verb
1. (of a motor-car etc) to make a loud bang because of unburnt gases in the exhaust system. The car backfired.
2. (of a plan etc) to have unexpected results, often opposite to the intended results. His scheme backfired (on him), and he lost money.
ˈbackground noun
1. the space behind the principal or most important figures or objects of a picture etc. He always paints ships against a background of stormy skies; trees in the background of the picture.
2. happenings that go before, and help to explain, an event etc. the background to a situation.
3. a person's origins, education etc. She was ashamed of her humble background.
ˈbackhand noun
1. in tennis etc, a stroke or shot with the back of one's hand turned towards the ball. a clever backhand; His backhand is very strong.
2. writing with the letters sloping backwards. I can always recognize her backhand.
adverb
using backhand. She played the stroke backhand; She writes backhand.
ˈbacklog noun
a pile of uncompleted work etc which has collected. a backlog of orders because of the strike.
ˌback-ˈnumber noun
an out-of-date copy or issue of a magazine etc. He collects back-numbers of comic magazines.
ˈbackpack noun
(especially American) a bag that walkers, people who go on trips, or students carry on their backs.
ˈbackpacking: go backpacking
to go on trips or go camping carrying a backpack.
ˈbackpacker noun
ˈbackside noun
the bottom or buttocks. He sits on his backside all day long and does no work.
ˈbackslash noun
the sign (\).
ˈbackstroke noun
in swimming, a stroke made when lying on one's back in the water. The child is good at backstroke.
ˈbackup noun
1. additional people who provide help when it is needed. The police officer requested some backup when the shooting began.
2. a copy of a computer file that can be used in case the original is destroyed.
3. (also adjective) a piece of equipment, a system etc that can be used when there is a problem with the original one. a backup plan; We have a backup generator in case the power fails.
ˈbackwash noun
1. a backward current eg that following a ship's passage through the water. the backwash of the steamer.
2. the unintentional results of an action, situation etc. The backwash of that firm's financial troubles affected several other firms.
ˈbackwater noun
1. a stretch of river not in the main stream.
2. a place not affected by what is happening in the world outside. That village is rather a backwater.
ˌbackˈyard noun
(especially American) a garden at the back of a house etc. He grows vegetables in his backyard.
back down
to give up one's opinion, claim etc. She backed down in the face of strong opposition.
back of
(American) behind. He parked back of the store.
back on to
(of a building etc) to have its back next to (something). My house backs on to the racecourse.
back out
1. to move out backwards. He opened the garage door and backed (his car) out.
2. to withdraw from a promise etc. You promised to help – you mustn't back out now!
back up
1. to support or encourage. The new evidence backed up my arguments.
2. to make a copy of the information stored on the computer or disk.
have one's back to the wall
to be in a very difficult or desperate situation. He certainly has his back to the wall as he has lost his job and cannot find another one.
put someone's back up
to anger someone. He put my back up with his boasting.
take a back seat
to take an unimportant position. At these discussions he always takes a back seat and listens to others talking.

backbone

عُمُود فِقْرِيّ páteř rygrad Rückgrat σπονδυλική στήλη columna vertebral selkäranka colonne vertébrale kralježnica spina dorsale 背骨 등뼈 ruggengraat ryggrad kręgosłup espinha dorsal позвоночник ryggrad กระดูกสันหลัง omurga xương sống 脊椎

back·bone

n. columna vertebral, espina dorsal.

backbone

n columna vertebral, columna (fam)
References in classic literature ?
We went on climbing, higher and higher, and curving hither and thither, in the shade of noble woods, and with a rich variety and profusion of wild flowers all about us; and glimpses of rounded grassy backbones below us occupied by trim chalets and nibbling sheep, and other glimpses of far lower altitudes, where distance diminished the chalets to toys and obliterated the sheep altogether; and every now and then some ermined monarch of the Alps swung magnificently into view for a moment, then drifted past an intervening spur and disappeared again.
The cook appeared, noiseless as a black shadow, collected a mass of backbones and heads, and retreated.
Then presently Bert got a cyclist's suit, cap, badge, and all; and to see him and Grubb going down to Brighton (and back)--heads down, handle-bars down, backbones curved--was a revelation in the possibilities of the Smallways blood.
Their ribs is like wash-boards, an' their stomachs is right up against their backbones.
17) The cows being on their sides on the ground, Hermes bends their heads back towards their flanks and so can reach their backbones.
That sharp backbone must have hurt him when he lay on it.
It had a directness, an emphasis, a particularity, that showed a backbone of solid meaning within the mystery of his expression.
For I believe that much of a man's character will be found betokened in his backbone.
There's not a lump as big as a pin--except backbone lumps, and you can only feel them because you're thin.
Rocinante was marvellously portrayed, so long and thin, so lank and lean, with so much backbone and so far gone in consumption, that he showed plainly with what judgment and propriety the name of Rocinante had been bestowed upon him.
I was anxious not to show the fear that seemed chilling my backbone.
Achilles cut his head off with a blow from his sword and flung it helmet and all away from him, and the marrow came oozing out of his backbone as he lay.