backward


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Related to backward: Backward Integration

back·ward

 (băk′wərd)
adj.
1. Directed or facing toward the back or rear.
2. Done or arranged in a manner or order that is opposite to previous occurrence or normal use.
3. Unwilling to act; reluctant; shy.
4. Behind others in progress or development: The technology was backward, but the system worked.
adv. or back·wards (-wərdz)
1. To or toward the back or rear.
2. With the back leading.
3. In a reverse manner or order.
4. To, toward, or into the past.
5. Toward a worse or less advanced condition.

back′ward·ly adv.
back′ward·ness n.
Usage Note: Most American English dictionaries list -wards as a spelling variant of the directional suffix -ward. Accordingly, two variants are provided for most of the adverbs that end with this suffix: backward/backwards, toward/towards, upward/upwards, and so on. Although both variants are considered acceptable, the -ward suffix is more common in American English, whereas the -wards suffix is more common in British English. This distinction is more prominent in edited prose than in casual writing or speech, possibly because many American copyeditors follow style manuals that recommend or prescribe the -ward variant. Despite this dialectal differentiation, there remains significant variation in usage among individuals and even among the different -ward words themselves. This variation is evident in the results from our 2012 usage survey: backwards and towards were deemed acceptable by 72 percent and 69 percent of Panelists, respectively, but only 38 percent found forwards to be acceptable. Note that for those -ward words that also function as adjectives, the form without the s is standard: a backward look; a westward journey.

backward

(ˈbækwəd)
adj
1. (usually prenominal) directed towards the rear: a backward glance.
2. retarded in physical, material, or intellectual development: backward countries; a backward child.
3.
a. of or relating to the past; conservative or reactionary
b. (in combination): backward-looking.
4. reluctant or bashful: a backward lover.
5. (Chess & Draughts) chess (of a pawn) behind neighbouring pawns and unable to be supported by them
adv
a variant of backwards
ˈbackwardly adv
ˈbackwardness n

back•ward

(ˈbæk wərd)

adv. Also, back′wards.
1. toward the back or rear.
2. with the back foremost.
3. in the reverse of the usual or right way: counting backward from 100.
4. toward the past.
5. toward a less advanced state; retrogressively.
adj.
6. directed toward the back or past.
7. reversed; returning: a backward movement.
8. behind in time, progress, or development: a backward learner.
9. bashful or hesitant; shy: a backward suitor.
Idioms:
1. backward(s) and forward(s), in every detail; thoroughly.
2. bend, lean, or fall over backward, to exert oneself to the utmost; make a serious effort.
[1250–1300]
back′ward•ly, adv.
back′ward•ness, n.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Adj.1.backward - directed or facing toward the back or rearbackward - directed or facing toward the back or rear; "a backward view"
regressive - opposing progress; returning to a former less advanced state
retrospective - concerned with or related to the past; "retrospective self-justification"
forward - at or near or directed toward the front; "the forward section of the aircraft"; "a forward plunge down the stairs"; "forward motion"
2.backward - (used of temperament or behavior) marked by a retiring naturebackward - (used of temperament or behavior) marked by a retiring nature; "a backward lover"
timid - showing fear and lack of confidence
forward - used of temperament or behavior; lacking restraint or modesty; "a forward child badly in need of discipline"
3.backward - retarded in intellectual development
archaicism, archaism - the use of an archaic expression
retarded - relatively slow in mental or emotional or physical development; "providing a secure and sometimes happy life for the retarded"
4.backward - having made less than normal progress; "an economically backward country"
adynamic, undynamic - characterized by an absence of force or forcefulness
Adv.1.backward - at or to or toward the back or rearbackward - at or to or toward the back or rear; "he moved back"; "tripped when he stepped backward"; "she looked rearward out the window of the car"
forrad, forrard, forward, forwards, frontward, frontwards - at or to or toward the front; "he faced forward"; "step forward"; "she practiced sewing backward as well as frontward on her new sewing machine"; (`forrad' and `forrard' are dialectal variations)
2.backward - in a manner or order or direction the reverse of normalbackward - in a manner or order or direction the reverse of normal; "it's easy to get the `i' and the `e' backward in words like `seize' and `siege'"; "the child put her jersey on backward"
3.backward - in or to or toward a past timebackward - in or to or toward a past time; "set the clocks back an hour"; "never look back"; "lovers of the past looking fondly backward"
ahead, forward - toward the future; forward in time; "I like to look ahead in imagination to what the future may bring"; "I look forward to seeing you"

backward

adjective
1. reverse, inverted, inverse, back to front, rearward, BWD (S.M.S.) He did a backward flip.
reverse forward, frontward
2. regressive, negative, downward, for the worse, degenerative, retrograde, retrogressive a backward step into unskilled work
3. underdeveloped, primitive, undeveloped, unsophisticated We need to accelerate the pace of change in our backward country.
4. slow, behind, stupid, retarded, deficient, underdeveloped, subnormal, half-witted, behindhand, slow-witted I was slow to walk and my parents thought I was backward.

backward

adjective
1. Directed or facing toward the back or rear:
2. Not forward but reticent or reserved in manner:
3. Exhibiting lack of education or knowledge:
4. Having only a limited ability to learn and understand:
Informal: soft.
5. Not progressing and developing as fast as others, as in economic and social aspects:
6. Economically and socially below standard:
7. Clinging to obsolete ideas:
adverb
1. Toward the back:
2. In or toward a former location or condition:
Translations
إلى الخَلْفمُتَخَلِّف عَقْليا أو جَسَديّاامُتَخَلِّف، غير مُتَطَوِّر
obrácený zpětopožděnýsměřující vzadzaostalý
bagudrettettilbageståendeunderudviklet
arriérésens devant derrière
elmaradotthátrafelé irányuló
á eftir tímanumseinòroskasem beinist aftur á bak/til baka
atbulomatgalinisatsilikęsatsilikimasiš kailio nertis
atpakaļ vērstsatpalicisneattīstīts
spätný
nazajritenskozaostal
az gelişmişgerigeri kalmışgeriyeyavaş

backward

[ˈbækwəd]
A. ADJ
1. [motion, glance] → hacia atrás
backward and forward movementmovimiento m de vaivén
2. [pupil, country] → atrasado
3. (= reluctant) → tímido
he wasn't backward in claiming the moneyno se mostró tímido a la hora de reclamar el dinero
he's not backward in coming forward (iro) → no peca de tímido
B. ADV
1. [look] → atrás, hacia atrás; [move] → hacia atrás
to walk/fall backwardandar/caer hacia atrás
to go backward and forwardir y venir, ir de acá para allá
this is a step backward (fig) → esto supone un paso atrás
see also bend over
2. (= in reverse) → al revés
to read sth backwardleer algo para atrás
to know sth backwardsaberse algo al dedillo or de pe a pa

backward

[ˈbækwərd]
adj
[movement, glance] → en arrière
backward and forward movement → mouvement de va-et-vient backward roll, backward somersault
(= retrograde) [measure] → rétrograde
a backward step → un pas en arrière
(= undeveloped) [country] → arriéré(e); [society, economy] → arriéré(e)
(old-fashioned or offensive) [child] → retardé(e) (old-fashioned)
(= shy) → hésitant(e)
adv = backwardsbackward-looking backward looking [ˈbækwərdlʊkɪŋ] adj (= regressive, reactionary) [attitude, approach] → rétrograde; [culture, country, organization] → rétrograde

backward

adj
backward and forward movementVor-und Zurückbewegung f; backward flow of informationRückfluss mvon Daten; a backward glanceein Blick zurück; a backward step (fig)ein Schritt mzurück
(fig) economy, regionrückständig; (pej: = retarded) childzurückgeblieben; to be socially/economically backwardgesellschaftlich/wirtschaftlich rückständig sein
adv = backwards

backward

[ˈbækwəd] adj
a. (motion, glance) → all'indietro
b. (pupil) → che è indietro, tardivo/a (pej) (country) → arretrato/a
c. (reluctant) backward (in doing sth)restio/a (a fare qc)

backward

(ˈbӕkwəd) adjective
1. aimed or directed backwards. He left without a backward glance.
2. less advanced in mind or body than is normal for one's age. a backward child.
3. late in developing a modern culture, mechanization etc. That part of Britain is still very backward; the backward peoples of the world.
ˈbackwardness noun
ˈbackwards adverb
1. towards the back. He glanced backwards.
2. with one's back facing the direction one is going in. The child walked backwards into a lamp-post.
3. in the opposite way to that which is usual. Can you count from 1 to 10 backwards? (= starting at 10 and counting to 1).
backwards and forwards
in one direction and then in the opposite direction. The dog ran backwards and forwards across the grass.
bend/fall over backwards
to try very hard. He bent over backwards to get us tickets for the concert.

backward

a. atrasado-a, tardío-a, lento-a, retraído-a;
adv. atrás, hacia atrás, al revés; [direction] en sentido contrario.

backward

adv hacia atrás
References in classic literature ?
He turned about, BOWED IN FRONT OF HIM, THOUGH THERE WAS NOBODY IN FRONT OF HIM, AND WITHDREW BACKWARD.
Ponta lashed out, right and left, savagely as ever, and though Joe blocked the blows, such was the force of them that he was knocked backward several steps.
And business so handled, at several sittings or meetings, goeth commonly backward and forward in an unsteady manner.
So they all turned their backs to the direction in which they wished to go and began walking backward.
Even grown dogs might hurtle him backward or sideways with the impact of their heavy bodies; and backward or sideways he would go, in the air or sliding on the ground, but always with his legs under him and his feet downward to the mother earth.
Not backward can the Will will; that it cannot break time and time's desire--that is the Will's lonesomest tribulation.
The Sheep, much against his will, carried her backward and forward for a long time, and at last said, "If you had treated a dog in this way, you would have had your deserts from his sharp teeth.
Is there a man who afterwards will be more backward in giving you his sister, or daughter?
That famous ring that pricked its owner when he forgot duty and followed desire--I wonder if it pricked very hard when he set out on the chase, or whether it pricked but lightly then, and only pierced to the quick when the chase had long been ended, and hope, folding her wings, looked backward and became regret?
Borne backward to the earth, he saw above him the dead and drawn face within a hand's breadth of his own, and then all was black.
They were just in time to see another figure standing against a pedestal near the reclining marble: a breathing blooming girl, whose form, not shamed by the Ariadne, was clad in Quakerish gray drapery; her long cloak, fastened at the neck, was thrown backward from her arms, and one beautiful ungloved hand pillowed her cheek, pushing somewhat backward the white beaver bonnet which made a sort of halo to her face around the simply braided dark-brown hair.
With a roar of pain and rage, Numa reared up and fell backward upon the ape-man; but still the mighty man-thing clung to his hold and repeatedly the long knife plunged rapidly into his side.