backwardness


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back·ward

 (băk′wərd)
adj.
1. Directed or facing toward the back or rear.
2. Done or arranged in a manner or order that is opposite to previous occurrence or normal use.
3. Unwilling to act; reluctant; shy.
4. Behind others in progress or development: The technology was backward, but the system worked.
adv. or back·wards (-wərdz)
1. To or toward the back or rear.
2. With the back leading.
3. In a reverse manner or order.
4. To, toward, or into the past.
5. Toward a worse or less advanced condition.

back′ward·ly adv.
back′ward·ness n.
Usage Note: Most American English dictionaries list -wards as a spelling variant of the directional suffix -ward. Accordingly, two variants are provided for most of the adverbs that end with this suffix: backward/backwards, toward/towards, upward/upwards, and so on. Although both variants are considered acceptable, the -ward suffix is more common in American English, whereas the -wards suffix is more common in British English. This distinction is more prominent in edited prose than in casual writing or speech, possibly because many American copyeditors follow style manuals that recommend or prescribe the -ward variant. Despite this dialectal differentiation, there remains significant variation in usage among individuals and even among the different -ward words themselves. This variation is evident in the results from our 2012 usage survey: backwards and towards were deemed acceptable by 72 percent and 69 percent of Panelists, respectively, but only 38 percent found forwards to be acceptable. Note that for those -ward words that also function as adjectives, the form without the s is standard: a backward look; a westward journey.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.backwardness - lack of normal development of intellectual capacities
stupidity - a poor ability to understand or to profit from experience
mental defectiveness, abnormality - retardation sufficient to fall outside the normal range of intelligence
mental deficiency, moronity - mild mental retardation
amentia, idiocy - extreme mental retardation
imbecility - retardation more severe than a moron but not as severe as an idiot

backwardness

noun
1. lack of development, underdevelopment, lack of sophistication, primitiveness I was astonished at the backwardness of our country at the time.

backwardness

noun
An awkwardness or lack of self-confidence in the presence of others:
Translations
تَخَلُّف
opožděnostzaostalost
fejletlenségvisszamaradottság
tregîa; óframfærni; seinn òroski
zaostalosť
geri kalmışlık

backwardness

[ˈbækwədnɪs] N [of country] → atraso m; [of person] (socially) → timidez f; (mentally) → retraso m

backwardness

[ˈbækwərdnɪs] n
[country, society, economy] → arriération f
economic backwardness → arriération économique
technological backwardness → arriération technologique
(old-fashioned or offensive) [child] → retard m mental (old-fashioned)backward roll nroulade f arrière

backwardness

n (mental) → Zurückgebliebenheit f; (of region)Rückständigkeit f

backwardness

[ˈbækwədnɪs] n (pej) (of country) → arretratezza

backward

(ˈbӕkwəd) adjective
1. aimed or directed backwards. He left without a backward glance.
2. less advanced in mind or body than is normal for one's age. a backward child.
3. late in developing a modern culture, mechanization etc. That part of Britain is still very backward; the backward peoples of the world.
ˈbackwardness noun
ˈbackwards adverb
1. towards the back. He glanced backwards.
2. with one's back facing the direction one is going in. The child walked backwards into a lamp-post.
3. in the opposite way to that which is usual. Can you count from 1 to 10 backwards? (= starting at 10 and counting to 1).
backwards and forwards
in one direction and then in the opposite direction. The dog ran backwards and forwards across the grass.
bend/fall over backwards
to try very hard. He bent over backwards to get us tickets for the concert.

backwardness

n. atraso, retraso, ignorancia, torpeza.
References in classic literature ?
The former of these will blame his prudence in neglecting an opportunity to possess himself of Mr Western's fortune; and the latter will no less despise him for his backwardness to so fine a girl, who seemed ready to fly into his arms, if he would open them to receive her.
But a large number of monasteries and churches is always a sign of the backwardness of a people," said Napoleon, turning to Caulaincourt for appreciation of this remark.
But Ikey was timid, and his hopes remained insoluble in the menstruum of his backwardness and fears.
I have long shrunk from children, because they often show a distrust -- a backwardness to be familiar with me.
Willoughby's behaviour in taking leave of them, his embarrassment,and affectation of cheerfulness, and, above all, his unwillingness to accept her mother's invitation, a backwardness so unlike a lover,so unlike himself, greatly disturbed her.
Monsieur will then, I am sure, have the goodness to be considerate with her at first, and not expose her backwardness, her inevitable deficiencies, before the young ladies, who, in a sense, are her pupils.
He, too, was sorry then that, owing to her backwardness, he had not observed her; and with that in his mind he left the pasture.
But Charles, accustomed to the backwardness of the common Americans to receive more than the price stipulated, still extended his hand towards the man.
I have consulted eminent men in the metropolis, and I am painfully aware of the backwardness under which medical treatment labors in our provincial districts.
There was a little backwardness in complying, for the freight looked too much for the boat; but on Riderhood's protesting 'that he had had half a dozen, dead and alive, in her afore now, and she was nothing deep in the water nor down in the stern even then, to speak of;' they carefully took their places, and trimmed the crazy thing.
Why, truly," said I, "my friend, I think it is, and I begin to be a convert to the principles of merchandising; but I must tell you, by the way, you do not know what I am doing; for if I once conquer my backwardness, and embark heartily, old as I am, I shall harass you up and down the world till I tire you; for I shall pursue it so eagerly, I shall never let you lie still.
You mean, I said, those gentlemen who tease and torture the strings and rack them on the pegs of the instrument: might carry on the metaphor and speak after their manner of the blows which the plectrum gives, and make accusations against the strings, both of backwardness and forwardness to sound; but this would be tedious, and therefore I will only say that these are not the men, and that I am referring to the Pythagoreans, of whom I was just now proposing to enquire about harmony.