Whereas Nganasan adds another benfactive suffix to the postposition, (20) a benefactive
meaning is inherent in Tundra Nenets:
He points out that most often in these languages, the first object has a benefactive
semantic role (i.
Rice and Kabata take as a starting point the Allative marker (regardless of whether it is a case affix or an adposition) and examine what other functions it can have (for example, Locative, Ablative, Purposive, Benefactive
This suggests that benefactive
for is a new development in Middle English.
As Desdemona continues her narrative, roles are further modified: Cassio becomes agent while Othello becomes dative or benefactive
, someone for whom something is done.
The following abbreviations are used in the glosses: I-V genders ABL Ablative, BEN benefactive
, CAUS causative, CNTR contrastive, COND conditional, CVB converb, DAT Dative, EP epenthetic, ERG Ergative, ESS Essive, F feminine, GEN1 first Genitive, HAB habitual, HPL human plural, INF infinitive, IMP imperative, IPFV imperfective, LAT Lative, LNK linker morpheme, M masculine, NEG negation, OBL oblique, POT potential, PRET preterite, PRS present, PST past, PTCP participle, SG singular, QUOT quotative, UW unwitnessed, W witnessed.
These include actor/experiencer, theme, goal, source, benefactive
, and instrument.
APPL Applicative BEN Benefactive
COM Comitative applicative conj Conjunction DUB Dubitative EMP Emphatic FUT Future IMP Imperative KB Karrbarda song LL Land gender MA Masculine gender NEG Negative NP Non-Past O Object P Past PROX Proximal demonstrative R Realis sg Singular SW Song word (vocable)
ABC ablativus causae ABL ablative ALL abative AP absolute passive AUX auxiliary BEN benefactive
CAUS causative CP conjunctive participle DAT dative EMP emphatic particle ERG ergative F feminine FIL filler word FPP future passive participle FUT future GEN genitive IMP imperative INF infinitive INS instrumental INT interrogative word ITM the iterative marker -i- LOC locative M masculine N neuter NOM nominative OBJ object OBL oblique OPT optative PL plural PM person marker POP postposition PP past participle PPRES present participle PRES present tense PSM the passive marker -i SF suffix SG singular
Kam exhibits a versatile morpheme to 323 which as plain verb means 'put', 'apply', 'use' and as preposition (coverb) marks nouns for their semantic roles of benefactive
and instrument (see example [15c] above).
Each of these verb phrases contains ordered segments including incorporated nominals, bound Benefactive
pronouns and enclitics marking tense, mood and aspect.
To, for, six, eight: patterns in the acquisition of dative and benefactive
verbs in English.