and malefactive applicativizationin Mapudungun.
Whereas Nganasan adds another benfactive suffix to the postposition, (20) a benefactive
meaning is inherent in Tundra Nenets:
Using the method of case frame analysis, Danove describes the 4,528 occurrences of the 122 New Testament verbs that, at least on occasion, designate communication or communication for a benefactive
In English, dative alternation expresses a relationship between a goal and a theme or a recipient in two alternate ways (Cuervo, 2007): a PPC, with an indirect object headed by the preposition to in goal contexts (2a) or by the preposition for in benefactive
counterparts (2b) and a DOC with two determiner phrases (DPs), with the dative recipient appearing before the theme, as illustrated in (3a) and (3b):
He points out that most often in these languages, the first object has a benefactive
semantic role (i.
If the referent is human, the genitive marker -mi precedes the benefactive
, dative, allative, ablative, instrumental, and locative case endings.
As such, the dative-marked complements may be claimed to have the semantic role of the target person (TP) (11), a sort of generalized dative role which usually subsumes the dative roles of a recipient, benefactive
, malefactive and experiencer (12) (e.
Rice and Kabata take as a starting point the Allative marker (regardless of whether it is a case affix or an adposition) and examine what other functions it can have (for example, Locative, Ablative, Purposive, Benefactive
This suggests that benefactive
for is a new development in Middle English.
ABC ablativus causae ABL ablative ALL abative AP absolute passive AUX auxiliary BEN benefactive
CAUS causative CP conjunctive participle DAT dative EMP emphatic particle ERG ergative F feminine FIL filler word FPP future passive participle FUT future GEN genitive IMP imperative INF infinitive INS instrumental INT interrogative word ITM the iterative marker -i- LOC locative M masculine N neuter NOM nominative OBJ object OBL oblique OPT optative PL plural PM person marker POP postposition PP past participle PPRES present participle PRES present tense PSM the passive marker -i SF suffix SG singular
As Desdemona continues her narrative, roles are further modified: Cassio becomes agent while Othello becomes dative or benefactive
, someone for whom something is done.
32) In the original Nahuatl the parallelism is more striking since the same root verb is used in both clauses, cahua, here with its applicative / benefactive
suffix: cauilia: namechnotlaleauilia and namechnotlacencauililitiuh.