7) Kate Glover & Hoi Kong, "The Canadian Senate & the (Im)Possibilities of Reform", (12 October 2014), Online Symposium on Bicameralism
, Verfassungsblog (blog), online: <http://www.
It is often argued that bicameralism
facilitates the representation of the interests of citizens in the constituent units at the national level as the second chamber 'provides for second opinion' (Wheare, 1968: 140).
As a general matter, the constitutional process of bicameralism
and presentment makes lawmaking hard.
In this paper, rather than attack or defend bicameralism
, we will argue in favour of attributing a democratically reconstituted Senate with the primary responsibility of reviewing the constitutionality of legislation (as opposed to acting as a chamber of "sober second thought" with respect to the policy decisions of the House of Commons).
Both houses are required to meet at the same place and take decisions collectively, with no allowance made for final legislative action other than through the process of bicameralism
The doctrine is both textual and structural, based on the Vesting Clause in Article I (2) and the separation of powers interests served by the requirement of bicameralism
But that necessarily involves separate legislation, subject to bicameralism
and presentment, above and beyond consent to the treaty itself.
The Structure of Parliament: The Tradition of Bicameralism
The American founding fathers took Plato's critiques of democracy seriously and in Federalist papers nine and 10, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison devised institutions like the separation of powers, bicameralism
and representation to permit majority rule but at the same time protect fundamental human rights, mainly property rights.
We have learned much about the operations of the physical brain, its neurons, its neural networks, its chemistry, and its bicameralism
and yet we cannot connect these understandings with human behavior, human will, and human spirituality.
This political maneuver wanes on the doctrines of presentment and bicameralism
, and the very notion of majority rule.
40) Mechanisms such as federalism, separation of powers, bicameralism
, and checks and balances dispersed power among a multitude of governmental institutions, departments, and officials, each of which would have its own interests.