The two pigments found in the eggshells were protoporphyrin and biliverdin
Furthermore, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, an enzyme involved in heme degradation catalyzing the formation of carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin
(BV) has a protective role against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).
in liver and spleen samples from multiple avian species.
The cytoprotective effects of bilirubin and biliverdin
on rat hepatocytes and human erythrocytes and the impact of albumin.
158) Additionally, CagA down-regulates the expression of Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule that cleaves the heme ring at the a methene bridge to form biliverdin
, thereby enhancing genotoxic stress.
The skeleton has been reported to contain the blue pigment, biliverdin
IX[alpha], which is formed by heme oxygenase (HO) during heme decomposition.
A breakdown product of hemoglobin, biliverdin
gives the greenish edge to bruised human flesh.
HO-1 contributes to the synthesis of biliverdin
and bilirubin, which are endogenous ROS scavengers, and HO-1 silencing induces ROS production (Ryter et al.
Protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in cardiac and renal transplantation with carbon monoxide, biliverdin
and both," American Journal of Transplantation, vol.
Among the antioxidant genes activated by Nrf2, one of the most commonly studied is the heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) gene which converts free heme, which has prooxidant effects, into iron, carbon monoxide (CO), and biliverdin
, with the last being converted into the antioxidant bilirubin via an activity also raised by Nrf2, the two biliverdin
This difference in color was due to variation in natural pigments such as biliverdin
or carotenoids present in buffalo or cow milk.