Sidel, "Philippine Politics in Town, District, and Province Bossism
in Cavite and Cebu", The Journal of Asian Studies 56, no.
While denying accusations of bossism
, they asserted,
Some of the discrepancy may be explained by: (1) the decade-long process in implementing provisions contained in the LGC; (2) the central government's reluctance to shift resources to sub-national units; and (3) the system of bossism
and cronyism that insulate elites from real accountability and public pressures (Hutchcroft 1994; 2000; Sidel 1999; 2005), leading to an abuse of discretionary funds that benefit them and not people with actual needs (Atkinson, Hicken and Ravanilla 2015).
Rather, they often mirror the worst features of our political system, such as a rowdy fiesta atmosphere of mass entertainment, personality-centered parties, bossism
, vote-buying, guns, goons and gold-hardly an ideal environment for the exercise of sound judgment.
Review: Oligarchic Patrimonialism, Bossism
, Electoral Clientelism, and Contested Democracy in the Philippines.
Sidel's explanation of the practice of bossism
in the Philippines depicts a process of economic domination by brokers in collusion with control over territory by elected officials on the levels of nation, district, and municipality.
According to one of them, "I also found negative aspect in the name of bossism
, stating that boss was always right".
Bailey took the mechanisms of control that had been refined by the old Industrial Section and IVC and added a dimension of Caucus manipulation and local 'ward' bossism
that included branch stacking and ballot stuffing.
The more open society that resulted came about because workers no longer were dependent as much on factories or giant corporations for their work; blacks were freed from the confines of Jim Crow segregation; and the dominance of political parties (and party bossism
as well) was ended.
Charles Evans Hughes, an early champion of the direct primary, was decrying political involvement and bossism
in the judiciary and arguing in favor of direct party nominations, even as he first campaigned for governor in 1906.
Now an assistant managing editor at the Las Vegas Sun, he wrote: "Long before I worked here, I was familiar with the Post's laudable crusade to rid Cincinnati City Hall of bossism
in the 1920's and in succeeding decades to lift the city's quality of life in innumerable ways.
Manley and Seaga to be party competition built on crude bossism