The only other mines in service are the Quickstrike series of aircraft-deployed weapons (essentially upgrades of the 1960s Destructor mines); the dedicated, thin-wall Mark 65 two-thousand-three-hundred-pound bottom mine
(in service since 1983); and the Mark 62 five-hundred-pound and Mark 63 one-thousand-pound bottom mines
This is especially difficult with the bottom mine
, which has a high friction force with the packing material--requiring much more exertion by the operator.
On 18 February 1991, for example, the billion-dollar Aegis cruiser USS Princeton (CG 59) suffered a "mission kill" from an Iraqi-laid Italian Manta multiple-influence bottom mine
costing about $25,000; the warship was out of service for the duration of Operation DESERT STORM and longer.
Planned development of the 2000 level, which will access ore immediately below the bottom mine
level and streamline mine haulage, is advancing at a reduced pace (as are other capital programs) until financing arrangements are completed.
Previous operations report the continuation of sulphides below the 1,100 feet bottom mine
level and suggest a lengthening, widening and grade improvement with depth.
Navy was able to locate, identify, and neutralize a 'live', influence-type bottom mine
for the first time under combat conditions.
Supporting mine-clearing operations in both deep-ocean and littoral waters, AN/AQS-20A minehunting sonar detects, localizes bottom, close-tethered and volume mines, and identifies bottom mines
None had any kind of deactivation device, and all were bottom mines
AN/AQS-20A common towed body is a minehunting system with the capability of identifying bottom mines
and detecting, localizing, and classifying bottom, close-tethered, volume and near surface mines when towed from the remote multi-mission vehicle.
It was designed for the French Navy to replace the mine-clearance diver in the dangerous roles of identifying and destroying moored and bottom mines
with the first system, the Mk 2 or Pap 102, which entered service in 1975.
One in particular is that of Mine Countermeasure (MCM) ships, a vessel designed to find, classify and destroy moored and bottom mines
These include bottom mines
using influence fuses, which should be highly effective in the shallow waters of the Gulf.