Filipovic introduces the process of transmorphemization, which he proposes to occur in three stages: (1) zero transmorphemization, when a lexeme is borrowed as a free morpheme without any bound morphemes
(English bridge [right arrow] Croatian bridz), (2) compromise transmorphemization, "when a loan keeps a final bound morpheme
that does not conform to the borrowing language's morphological system" (English farm-er [right arrow] Croatian farm-er), and (3) complete transmorphemization, when "a donor language bound morpheme
which does not conform to the morphological system of the borrowing language is replaced by a borrowing-language bound morpheme
(suffix) with the same function.
It is a bound morpheme
uniting two segments in derivational operations e.
There are two types of morphemes in the English language, distinguished as either bound or free (Ganske, 2000): A bound morpheme
is the smallest unit of meaning that cannot be used as an isolated word.
The teacher thinks aloud, making comments such as, 'The word catchment is made up of a free morpheme (catch) and a bound morpheme
This is a bound morpheme
([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) that connects to the beginning of the noun.
Poplack (1980) discusses two grammatical constraints on code- switching: (a) a free-morpheme constraint which states that a switch cannot occur between a lexical form and a bound morpheme
unless the former has been phonologically integrated into the language of the latter and (b) the equivalence constraint rule which states that the word order immediately before and immediately after a switching point should exist in the two languages to make it possible for a switch to take place.
But there are several reasons to reject such a substantial claim; as the best well-known of them is clitics, such as; plural suffix /-[alpha]n/, nominalizer/adjectivizer suffix /-i/, and also the bound morpheme
In Evans's data, men would only appear as a bound morpheme
According to the first constraint, no mixes should take place between a root and a bound morpheme
Norde defines deinflectionalization as a "composite change whereby an inflectional affix in a specific linguistic context gains a new function, while shifting to a less bound morpheme
type" (Norde2009: 152), involving in this definition changes from inflectional affix to clitic and to derivational affix.
Although is the outcome of the grammaticalisation of kar- into a future tense marker through erosion, it did not turn into a bound morpheme
and remains an independent word.
Together with the equivalence constraint, Poplack (1980: 585) states that there is a second constraint pertaining to switching, the "free morpheme constraint" which predicts that bound morphemes
cannot be transferred unless either the bound morpheme
or the free morpheme to which it is affixed is phonologically integrated according to the phonological features of the other language.