cactorum, all braconids
subsequently associated with this moth have been identified arbitrarily as this species.
including dipterans, as well as hymenopterans such as vespids, braconids
and chalcids, but not bees (reviewed in Bino et al.
Today, the polydnaviruses associated with each wasp family, the braconids
and the ichneumonoids, look quite different.
In the upper stratum, the densities of trichogrammatids were increased in Tr3 and Tr4, but not significantly; and the densities of braconids
and ichneumonids were significantly increased in all of the treatments except Tr1, In the middle stratum, the densities of trichogrammatids were not differ significantly from the control in Trl and Tr2, but they significantly less than in the control in Tr3 and Tr4; the densities of ichneumonids were significantly increased only by Tr2, and braconids
were absent in this stratum.
are systematically speciose with 19,434 described species, but perhaps close to 40,000 total species (Campos & Sharkey 2006; Yu et al.
are widely used in the control of tephritid fruit flies because their relatively high host specificity and ability to inflict substantial mortality on their hosts (Aluja et al.
Currently, we have little knowledge about the life history of the 2 native braconids
Species of opiine braconids
are often the most abundant and diverse elements in New World parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp.
After adult emergence, tephritids and braconids
were identified with identification keys (Zucchi 2000; Canal & Zucchi 2000).
Several species of braconids
, ichneumonids, and pteromalids are known to parasitize D.
1999), and 2 largely sympatric species of opiine braconids
, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) and Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), inflict high levels of mortality on A.
Thus, it was established that the larvae of Tephritidae were parasitized by braconids
while that of lonchaeids were parasitized by figitids.