Motor symptoms, including tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia
, are the most common presenting symptoms.
Parkinson's disease is characterized by symptoms such as postural instability, akinesia, and bradykinesia
Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain, causing motor disorders including bradykinesia
, rigidity, tremors and postural instability.
2009): "early disease onset" (age at onset, < 55 years); "tremor dominant" (rest tremor as the main initial symptom, and/or dominance of tremor over bradykinesia
and rigidity according to the neurologist); "non-tremor dominant" (bradykinesia
and/or rigidity as main initial symptoms, and/or dominance of bradykinesia
and/or rigidity over tremor according to the neurologist); and "unknown subtype" for patients that we could not classify into any of these groups, mainly due to missing values of the relevant variables.
First-generation antipsychotics, such as haloperidol, are more likely to induce extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) such as rigidity, bradykinesia
, tremor, and dyskinesia.
Signs of PD include bradykinesia
, tremor, muscle rigidity, and instability of gait (9).
Clinical features include resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia
, postural instability and responsiveness to levodopa.
It is a chronic progressive degenerative disease characteristically showing quiver, stiffness, bradykinesia
and postural instability.
Quantification of tremor and bradykinesia
in Parkinson's disease using a novel ambulatory monitoring system, IEEE Transactions on BioMedical Engineering 54: 313-322.
Table 18: Incidence of EPS Compared to Placebo in the Monotherapy Bipolar Depression Study LATUDA Adverse Event Term Placebo 20 to 60 mg/day 80 to 120 mg/day (N=168) (N=164) (N=167) (%) (%) (%) All EPS events 5 12 20 All EPS events, 2 5 9 excluding Akathisia/ Restlessness Akathisia 2 8 11 Dystonia* 0 0 2 Parkinsonism** 2 5 8 Restlessness <1 0 3 Note: Figures rounded to the nearest integer *Dystonia includes adverse event terms: dystonia, oculogyric crisis, oromandibular dystonia, tongue spasm, torticollis, and trismus **Parkinsonism includes adverse event terms: bradykinesia
, cogwheel rigidity, drooling, extrapyramidal disorder, glabellar reflex abnormal, hypokinesia, muscle rigidity, parkinsonism, psychomotor retardation, and tremor
The patient did not show any signs of Parkinsonism such as bradykinesia
or cognitive dysfunction suggesting CNS lesion.
is also one of the prominent signs of PD.