Embryologically, the normal right subclavian artery originates from the right fourth branchial arch
1,2) The styloid process is a derivative of the Reichert cartilage of the 2nd branchial arch
and along with the stylohyoid ligament and the lesser horn of the hyoid bone, it forms the stylohyoid complex.
First and second branchial arch
syndromes: Multimodality approach.
Sakamoto (1984) utilized data on the branchial apparatus in his phylogenetic studies of Pleuronectidae, exploiting seven characters: 5th ceratobranchials, the shape of the 1st epibranchial, teeth on the 3rd epibranchial, gill rakers on the upper limb of the branchial arch
, spines on gill rakers, shape of gill rakers and bony plates on the branchial arches
Developmental anomalies of structures derived from the upper half of the first branchial arch
are common, giving rise to deformities such as cleft lip or cleft palate.
The pathogenesis of the first and second branchial arch
Prominent theories range from deleterious genetic mutations (1), vascular disruption with expanding hematoma formation in utero (2), autosomal dominant inheritance (3), and first and second branchial arch
Cetorhinus maximus is also characterized by having large gill slits that nearly encircle the head, numerous long, filamentous dermal denticle gill takers lining the anterior and posterior sides of each branchial arch
, a strongly pointed snout and large subterminal mouth with numerous small, monocuspid teeth, strong lateral keels on the caudal peduncle and a large lunate caudal fin (Compagno, 2001).
Additional diagnostic features include 18-20 gill rakers on the first branchial arch
, 15-16 circumpeduncular scales, and an absence of vomerine teeth or a small, inconspicuous patch of rudimentary vomerine teeth.
In the present case, an explanation of these additional heads of the SCM may be due to abnormal splitting in the mesoderm of post-sixth branchial arch
Hairy polyp' of the pharynx in association with an ipsilateral branchial sinus: evidence that the 'hairy polyp' is a second branchial arch
The anterior two thirds originate from paired lateral lingual swellings, which are contributed by first branchial arch