break down


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break

 (brāk)
v. broke (brōk), bro·ken (brō′kən), break·ing, breaks
v.tr.
1. To cause to separate into pieces suddenly or violently; smash.
2.
a. To divide into pieces, as by bending or cutting: break crackers for a baby.
b. To separate into components or parts: broke the work into discrete tasks.
3. To snap off or detach: broke a twig from the tree.
4.
a. To cause to undergo a fracture of (a bone, for example): The impact of the fall broke his leg.
b. To experience a fracture in (a bone, for example): I broke my wrist when skateboarding.
5. To crack without separating into pieces: broke the mirror.
6.
a. To destroy the completeness of (a group of related items): broke the set of books by giving some away.
b. To exchange for smaller monetary units: break a dollar.
7. To vary or disrupt the uniformity or continuity of: a plain that was broken by low hills; caught the ball without breaking stride.
8. Electricity To render (a circuit) inoperative by disruption; open.
9. To open (a shotgun or similar firearm) at the breech, as for loading or cleaning.
10.
a. To force or make a way through; puncture or penetrate: The blade barely broke the skin.
b. To part or pierce the surface of: a dolphin breaking water.
11. To produce (a sweat) copiously on the skin, as from exercise.
12. To force one's way out of; escape from: break jail.
13. To make or bring about by cutting or forcing: break a trail through the woods.
14.
a. To find an opening or flaw in: They couldn't break my alibi.
b. To find the solution or key to; uncover the basic elements and arrangement of: break a code; break a spy ring.
15. To make known, as news: break a story.
16. To surpass or outdo: broke the league's home-run record.
17. To overcome or put an end to, especially by force or strong opposition: break a deadlock in negotiations; break a strike.
18. Sports To win a game on (an opponent's service), as in tennis.
19. To lessen the force or effect of: break a fall.
20. To render useless or inoperative: We accidentally broke the radio.
21. To weaken or destroy, as in spirit or health; overwhelm with adversity: "For a hero loves the world till it breaks him" (William Butler Yeats).
22. To cause the ruin or failure of (an enterprise, for example): Indiscretion broke both marriage and career.
23. To reduce in rank; demote.
24. To cause to be without money or to go into bankruptcy.
25. To fail to fulfill; cancel: break an engagement.
26. To fail to conform to; violate: break the speed limit.
27. Law To cause (a will) to be invalidated because of inconsistency with state inheritance laws or as a result of other legal insufficiency.
28.
a. To give up (a habit).
b. To cause to give up a habit: They managed to break themselves of smoking.
29. To train to obey; tame: The horse was difficult to break.
v.intr.
1. To become separated into pieces or fragments.
2. To become cracked or split.
3. To become fractured: His arm broke from the fall.
4. To become unusable or inoperative: The television broke.
5. To give way; collapse: The scaffolding broke during the storm.
6. To burst: The blister broke.
7.
a. To intrude: They broke in upon our conversation.
b. To filter in or penetrate: Sunlight broke into the room.
8. To scatter or disperse; part: The clouds broke after the storm.
9. Games To make the opening shot that scatters the grouped balls in billiards or pool.
10. Sports To separate from a clinch in boxing.
11. Sports To win a game on the opponent's service, as in tennis: broke twice in the first set.
12. To move away or escape suddenly: broke from his grip and ran off.
13. To come forth or begin from a state of latency; come into being or emerge: A storm was breaking over Miami. Crocuses broke from the soil.
14. To emerge above the surface of water.
15. To become known or noticed: The big story broke on Friday.
16. To change direction or move suddenly: The quarterback broke to the left to avoid a tackler.
17. Baseball To curve near or over the plate: The pitch broke away from the batter.
18. To change suddenly from one tone quality or musical register to another: His voice broke into a falsetto.
19. Linguistics To undergo breaking.
20. To change to a gait different from the one set. Used of a horse.
21. To interrupt or cease an activity: We'll break for coffee at ten.
22. To discontinue an association, an agreement, or a relationship: The partners broke over a financial matter. One hates to break with an old friend.
23. To diminish or discontinue abruptly: The fever is breaking.
24. To diminish in or lose physical or spiritual strength; weaken or succumb: Their good cheer broke after repeated setbacks.
25. To decrease sharply in value or quantity: Stock prices broke when the firm suddenly announced layoffs.
26. To come to an end: The cold spell broke yesterday.
27. To collapse or crash into surf or spray: waves that were breaking along the shore.
28. Informal To take place or happen; proceed: Things have been breaking well for them.
29. To engage in breaking; break dance.
n.
1. The act or an occurrence of breaking.
2. The result of breaking, as a crack, separation, or opening: a break in the clouds.
3. The beginning or emergence of something: the break of day.
4. A sudden movement; a dash: The dog made a break toward the open field.
5. An escape: a prison break.
6. An interruption or a disruption in continuity or regularity: television programming without commercial breaks.
7. A pause or interval, as from work: a coffee break.
8. A sudden or marked change: a break in the weather.
9. A violation: a security break.
10. An often sudden piece of luck, especially good luck: finally got the big break in life.
11. Informal
a. An allowance or indulgence; accommodating treatment: The boss gave me a break because I'd been sick.
b. A favorable price or reduction: a tax break for charitable contributions.
12. A severing of ties: made a break with the past; a break between the two families.
13. Informal A faux pas.
14. A sudden decline in prices.
15. A caesura.
16. Printing
a. The space between two paragraphs.
b. A series of three dots ( ... ) used to indicate an omission in a text.
c. The place where a word is or should be divided at the end of a line.
17. Electricity Interruption of a flow of current.
18. Geology A marked change in topography such as a fault or deep valley.
19. Nautical The point of discontinuity between two levels on the deck of a ship.
20. Music
a. The point at which one register or tonal quality changes to another.
b. The change itself.
c. An improvised instrumental solo played in jazz and other popular music while the other musicians stop or play softly.
21. A change in a horse's gait to one different from that set by the rider.
22. Sports The swerving of a ball from a straight path of flight, as in baseball or cricket.
23. Sports The beginning of a race.
24. Sports
a. A fast break.
b. The separation after a clinch in boxing.
25. Games The opening shot that scatters the grouped balls in billiards or pool.
26. Games A run or unbroken series of successful shots, as in billiards or croquet.
27. Sports & Games Failure to score a strike or a spare in a given bowling frame.
28. Sports A service break.
29. Variant of brake6.
30. Break dancing.
Phrasal Verbs:
break away
1. To separate or detach oneself, as from a group.
2. To move rapidly away from or ahead of a group: The cyclist broke away from the pack.
3. To discontinue customary practice.
break down
1. To cause to collapse; destroy: break down a partition; broke down our resolve.
2.
a. To become or cause to become distressed or upset.
b. To have a physical or mental collapse.
3. To give up resistance; give way: prejudices that break down slowly.
4. To fail to function; cease to be useful, effective, or operable: The elevator broke down.
5. To render or become weak or ineffective: Opposition to the king's rule gradually broke down his authority.
6.
a. To divide into or consider in parts; analyze.
b. To be divisible; admit of analysis: The population breaks down into three main groups.
7. To decompose or cause to decompose chemically.
8. Electricity To undergo a breakdown.
break in
1. To train or adapt for a purpose.
2. To loosen or soften with use: break in new shoes.
3. To enter premises forcibly or illegally: a prowler who was trying to break in.
4.
a. To interrupt a conversation or discussion.
b. To intrude.
5. To begin an activity or undertaking: The Senator broke in during the war years.
break into
1. To interrupt: "No one would have dared to break into his abstraction" (Alan Paton).
2. To begin suddenly: The horse broke into a wild gallop. The child broke into a flood of tears.
3. To enter (a field of activity): broke into broadcast journalism at an early age.
break off
1. To separate or become separated, as by twisting or tearing.
2. To stop suddenly, as in speaking.
3.
a. To discontinue (a relationship).
b. To cease to be friendly.
break out
1. To become affected with a skin eruption, such as pimples.
2. To develop suddenly and forcefully: Fighting broke out in the prison cells.
3.
a. To ready for action or use: Break out the rifles!
b. To bring forth for consumption: Let's break out the champagne.
4. To emerge or escape.
5. To be separable or classifiable into categories, as data.
6. To isolate (information) from a large body of data.
break through
To make a sudden, quick advance, as through an obstruction.
break up
1.
a. To separate or be separated into pieces: She broke up a chocolate bar. The river ice finally broke up.
b. To interrupt the uniformity or continuity of: An impromptu visit broke up the long afternoon.
2. To scatter; disperse: The crowd broke up after the game.
3. To cease to function or cause to stop functioning as an organized unit or group: His jazz band broke up. The new CEO broke up the corporation.
4. To bring or come to an end: Guards broke up the fight. They argued, and their friendship broke up.
5. Informal To burst or cause to burst into laughter.
Idioms:
break a leg
Used to wish someone, such as an actor, success in a performance.
break bread
To eat together.
break camp
To pack up equipment and leave a campsite.
break cover
To emerge from a protected location or hiding place: The platoon broke cover and headed down the road.
break even
To gain an amount equal to that invested, as in a commercial venture.
break ground
1. To begin a new construction project.
2. To advance beyond previous achievements.
break new ground
To advance beyond previous achievements: broke new ground in the field of computers.
break (one's) neck
To make the utmost possible effort.
break rank/ranks
1. To fall into disorder, as a formation of soldiers.
2. To fail to conform to a prevailing or expected pattern or order: "Architectural experts have criticized the plaza in the past because it breaks rank with the distinctive façades of neighboring Fifth Avenue blocks, whose buildings are flush with the sidewalk" (Sharon Churcher).
break (someone's) heart
To disappoint or dispirit someone severely.
break the bank
To require more money than is available.
break the buck
To fall below the value of one dollar. Used of the net asset value of a mutual fund, especially a money market fund.
break the ice
1. To make a start.
2. To relax a tense or unduly formal atmosphere or social situation.
break wind
To expel intestinal gas.

[Middle English breken, from Old English brecan; see bhreg- in Indo-European roots.]
Synonyms: break, crack, fracture, burst, splinter, shatter, smash
These verbs mean to separate or cause to separate into parts or pieces, either by the sudden application of force or by the pressure of internal stress. Break is the most general: That delicate ornament will break easily. The window was broken by vandals. The bag held so many heavy things that it broke.
To crack is to break without dividing into parts: The building's foundation cracked during the earthquake. By bumping against the counter I cracked the coffeepot, but it didn't leak.
Fracture applies to a break or crack in a rigid body: Heat and pressure caused the bedrock to fracture. She fractured her hip in the accident.
Burst implies a sudden coming apart, especially from internal pressure: The pipe burst during the cold snap. The child burst the balloon with a pin.
Splinter implies splitting into long, thin, sharp pieces: The boat's hull splintered when it hit the reef. The crowbar splintered the jamb, and the door opened.
To shatter is to break into many scattered pieces: The icicle shattered when it landed on the front steps. The ball shattered the window upon impact.
Smash stresses force of blow or impact and suggests complete destruction: I dropped the vase, and it smashed into pieces. The storm winds smashed the orchard trees, ruining the harvest. See Also Synonyms at opportunity.

break down

vb (adverb)
1. (intr) to cease to function; become ineffective: communications had broken down.
2. to yield or cause to yield, esp to strong emotion or tears: she broke down in anguish.
3. (tr) to crush or destroy
4. (Psychiatry) (intr) to have a nervous breakdown
5. to analyse or be subjected to analysis
6. (Chemistry) to separate or cause to separate into simpler chemical elements; decompose
7. (Forestry) (tr) NZ to saw (a large log) into planks
8. break it down informal
a. stop it
b. don't expect me to believe that; come off it
n
9. an act or instance of breaking down; collapse
10. (Psychiatry) short for nervous breakdown
11. an analysis or classification of something into its component parts: he prepared a breakdown of the report.
12. (Electronics) the sudden electrical discharge through an insulator or between two electrodes in a vacuum or gas discharge tube
13. (Electrical Engineering) electrical engineering the sudden transition, dependent on the bias magnitude, from a high to a low dynamic resistance in a semiconductor device
14. (Dancing) a lively American country dance
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Verb1.break down - make ineffective; "Martin Luther King tried to break down racial discrimination"
alter, change, modify - cause to change; make different; cause a transformation; "The advent of the automobile may have altered the growth pattern of the city"; "The discussion has changed my thinking about the issue"
2.break down - make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis ofbreak down - make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of; break down into components or essential features; "analyze a specimen"; "analyze a sentence"; "analyze a chemical compound"
parse - analyze syntactically by assigning a constituent structure to (a sentence)
botanise, botanize - collect and study plants
3.break down - lose control of one's emotions; "When she heard that she had not passed the exam, she lost it completely"; "When her baby died, she snapped"
behave, act, do - behave in a certain manner; show a certain behavior; conduct or comport oneself; "You should act like an adult"; "Don't behave like a fool"; "What makes her do this way?"; "The dog acts ferocious, but he is really afraid of people"
dissolve - lose control emotionally; "She dissolved into tears when she heard that she had lost all her savings in the pyramid scheme"
die - be brought to or as if to the point of death by an intense emotion such as embarrassment, amusement, or shame; "I was dying with embarrassment when my little lie was discovered"; "We almost died laughing during the show"
fall apart, go to pieces - lose one's emotional or mental composure; "She fell apart when her only child died"
4.break down - stop operating or functioning; "The engine finally went"; "The car died on the road"; "The bus we travelled in broke down on the way to town"; "The coffee maker broke"; "The engine failed on the way to town"; "her eyesight went after the accident"
change - undergo a change; become different in essence; losing one's or its original nature; "She changed completely as she grew older"; "The weather changed last night"
break - render inoperable or ineffective; "You broke the alarm clock when you took it apart!"
croak, decease, die, drop dead, buy the farm, cash in one's chips, give-up the ghost, kick the bucket, pass away, perish, snuff it, pop off, expire, conk, exit, choke, go, pass - pass from physical life and lose all bodily attributes and functions necessary to sustain life; "She died from cancer"; "The children perished in the fire"; "The patient went peacefully"; "The old guy kicked the bucket at the age of 102"
go down, crash - stop operating; "My computer crashed last night"; "The system goes down at least once a week"
blow out, burn out, blow - melt, break, or become otherwise unusable; "The lightbulbs blew out"; "The fuse blew"
misfire - fail to fire or detonate; "The guns misfired"
malfunction, misfunction - fail to function or function improperly; "the coffee maker malfunctioned"
5.break down - fall apart; "the building crumbled after the explosion"; "Negotiations broke down"
change integrity - change in physical make-up
6.break down - cause to fall or collapse
bust, break - ruin completely; "He busted my radio!"
7.break down - separate (substances) into constituent elements or parts
chemical science, chemistry - the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions
digest - soften or disintegrate by means of chemical action, heat, or moisture
dissociate - to undergo a reversible or temporary breakdown of a molecule into simpler molecules or atoms; "acids dissociate to give hydrogen ions"
crack - reduce (petroleum) to a simpler compound by cracking
separate - divide into components or constituents; "Separate the wheat from the chaff"
8.break down - collapse due to fatigue, an illness, or a sudden attack
drop like flies - rapidly collapse, die, or drop out in large numbers; "the contestants dropped like flies when the thermometer hit one hundred degrees"
fall over, go over - fall forward and down; "The old woman went over without a sound"
suffer, sustain, have, get - undergo (as of injuries and illnesses); "She suffered a fracture in the accident"; "He had an insulin shock after eating three candy bars"; "She got a bruise on her leg"; "He got his arm broken in the scuffle"

break

verb
1. To crack or split into two or more fragments by means of or as a result of force, a blow, or strain:
2. To become or cause to become apart one from another:
Idioms: part company, set at odds.
3. To make a hole or other opening in.Also used with through:
4. To pass into or through by overcoming resistance.Also used with through:
5. To find the key to (a code, for example):
7. To be made public:
Informal: leak (out).
8. To make or become unusable or inoperative:
Slang: bust.
9. To impair severely something such as the spirit, health, or effectiveness of:
10. To give way mentally and emotionally.Also used with down:
Informal: crack up, fold.
11. To suddenly lose all health or strength.Also used with down:
Informal: crack up.
Slang: conk out.
Idiom: give way.
12. To reduce to financial insolvency:
Slang: clean out.
13. To undergo sudden financial failure:
Informal: fold.
Idioms: go belly up, go bust, go on the rocks, go to the wall.
14. To lower in rank or grade:
Slang: bust.
15. To fail to fulfill (a promise) or conform to (a regulation):
16. To refuse or fail to obey:
Idiom: pay no attention to.
17. To desist from, cease, or discontinue (a habit, for example):
Slang: kick.
18. To interrupt regular activity for a short period:
Idioms: take a break, take a breather, take five.
19. To make (an animal) docile:
phrasal verb
break down
1. To cause the complete ruin or wreckage of:
Slang: total.
2. To cease functioning properly:
Slang: conk out.
3. To separate into parts for study:
4. To take (something) apart:
5. To reduce or become reduced to pieces or components:
6. To become or cause to become rotten or unsound:
phrasal verb
break in
1. To enter forcibly or illegally:
Law: trespass.
2. To interject remarks or questions into another's discourse:
phrasal verb
break off
1. To stop suddenly, as a conversation, activity, or relationship:
2. To cease trying to accomplish or continue:
Informal: swear off.
Slang: lay off.
3. To terminate a relationship or an association by or as if by leaving one another:
Informal: split (up).
Idioms: call it quits, come to a parting of the ways, part company.
phrasal verb
break out
1. To become manifest suddenly and in full force:
burst (forth or out), erupt, explode, flare (up).
2. To break loose and leave suddenly, as from confinement or from a difficult or threatening situation:
Informal: skip (out).
Slang: lam.
Regional: absquatulate.
Idioms: blow the coop, cut and run, give someone the slip, make a getaway, take flight, take it on the lam.
phrasal verb
break up
1. To make a division into parts, sections, or branches:
2. To reduce or become reduced to pieces or components:
3. To terminate a relationship or an association by or as if by leaving one another:
Informal: split (up).
Idioms: call it quits, come to a parting of the ways, part company.
4. Informal. To express great amusement or mirth:
Slang: howl.
noun
1. An opening, especially in a solid structure:
2. A usually narrow partial opening caused by splitting and rupture:
3. The act or an instance of escaping, as from confinement or difficulty:
Slang: lam.
4. A cessation of continuity or regularity:
5. An interval during which continuity is suspended:
6. A pause or interval, as from work or duty:
Informal: breather.
7. A favorable or advantageous combination of circumstances:
Informal: shot.
8. An interruption in friendly relations:
Translations
يتعطّـليَتَعَطَّليفتح بالقوةيفشلينهار
porouchat serozrazitvyrazitzhroutit seztroskotat
bryde sammenbryde ind
hajotamaatua
pokvariti se
felmondja a szolgálatotkönnyekre fakadletörzsákutcába jut
bilabrjóta niîurbrotna niîurfara út um òúfur
故障する
고장 나다
vypovedať službu
bryta samman
ใช้งานไม่ได้
bozulmakçalışmamakkesilmekkırarak açmakkontrolünü kaybetmek
hỏng

break

(breik) past tense broke (brouk) : past participle brəken (ˈbroukən) verb
1. to divide into two or more parts (by force).
2. (usually with off/away) to separate (a part) from the whole (by force).
3. to make or become unusable.
4. to go against, or not act according to (the law etc). He broke his appointment at the last minute.
5. to do better than (a sporting etc record).
6. to interrupt. She broke her journey in London.
7. to put an end to. He broke the silence.
8. to make or become known. They gently broke the news of his death to his wife.
9. (of a boy's voice) to fall in pitch.
10. to soften the effect of (a fall, the force of the wind etc).
11. to begin. The storm broke before they reached shelter.
noun
1. a pause. a break in the conversation.
2. a change. a break in the weather.
3. an opening.
4. a chance or piece of (good or bad) luck. This is your big break.
ˈbreakable adjective
(negative unbreakable) likely to break. breakable toys.
noun
(usually in plural) something likely to break.
ˈbreakage (-kidʒ) noun
the act of breaking, or its result(s).
ˈbreaker noun
a (large) wave which breaks on rocks or the beach.
ˈbreakdown noun
1. (often nervous breakdown) a mental collapse.
2. a mechanical failure causing a stop. The car has had another breakdown. See also break down.
break-inbreak in(to)ˈbreakneck adjective
(usually of speed) dangerous. He drove at breakneck speed.
breakoutbreak outˈbreakthrough noun
a sudden solution of a problem leading to further advances, especially in science.
ˈbreakwater noun
a barrier to break the force of the waves.
break away
to escape from control. The dog broke away from its owner.
break down
1. to use force on (a door etc) to cause it to open.
2. to stop working properly. My car has broken down.
3. to fail. The talks have broken down.
4. to be overcome with emotion. She broke down and wept.
break in(to)
1. to enter (a house etc) by force or unexpectedly (noun ˈbreak-in. The Smiths have had two break-ins recently).
2. to interrupt (someone's conversation etc).
break loose
to escape from control. The dog has broken loose.
break off
to stop. She broke off in the middle of a sentence.
break out
1. to appear or happen suddenly. War has broken out.
2. to escape (from prison, restrictions etc). A prisoner has broken out (noun ˈbreakout).
break out in
to (suddenly) become covered in a rash, in sweat etc. I'm allergic to strawberries. They make me break out in a rash.
break the ice
to overcome the first shyness etc. Let's break the ice by inviting our new neighbours for a meal.
break up
1. to divide, separate or break into pieces. He broke up the old furniture and burnt it; John and Mary broke up (= separated from each other) last week.
2. to finish or end. The meeting broke up at 4.40.
make a break for it
to make an (attempt to) escape. When the guard is not looking, make a break for it.

break down

يَتَعَطَّل porouchat se bryde sammen kaputtgehen παθαίνω βλάβη averiarse hajota tomber en panne pokvariti se guastarsi 故障する 고장 나다 kapot gaan bryte sammen zepsuć się falhar ломать bryta samman ใช้งานไม่ได้ bozulmak hỏng 坏掉了
References in classic literature ?
We could not come before; the old devil of a coachmaker was such an eternity finding out a thing fit to be got into, and now it is ten thousand to one but they break down before we are out of the street.
I said, "Roberts, these cars is tricky; break down when you're twenty miles from hanywhere as soon as look at you.
Don't mention my little brothers and sisters--don't make me break down quite
He may find the shepherds keeping watch over their flocks with dogs and spears, but he is in no mind to be driven from the fold till he has had a try for it; he will either spring on a sheep and carry it off, or be hit by a spear from some strong hand--even so was Sarpedon fain to attack the wall and break down its battlements.
I knew this was true of myself, but hers was such a lily strength that I feared she would break down.
It was then that my correlations began to break down.
It was but a glimpse, but it showed them the crowd, gathering and clustering round the house: some of the armed men pressing to the front to break down the doors and windows, some bringing brands from the nearest fire, some with lifted faces following their course upon the roof and pointing them out to their companions: all raging and roaring like the flames they lighted up.
I break down before the knowledge of what I want to say to you.
The best plan will be for them not to run," said another, "so that neither the thin man break down under the weight, nor the fat one strip himself of his flesh; let half the wager be spent in wine, and let's take these gentlemen to the tavern where there's the best, and
I had recovered strength amazingly since my landing, but I was still inclined to be nervous and to break down under any great stress.
It can't happen for some time," said the Tin Woodman, trying to speak cheerfully; "for we shall be able to keep Jinjur out of the palace until she manages to break down the doors.
The thought came to me: If I break down here in the desert--if the fever return and I fail, this beast will be at my throat.