40,41) Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, and other infiltrating monocytoid cells in inflammatory nodules may play an important role in the airway remodeling and bronchiolar
destruction given that MMP2 and MMP9 are strongly expressed in lesional dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, and macrophages.
Influenza virus antigen expression in lung sections was scored for bronchial surface epithelium, bronchial submucosal gland epithelium, bronchiolar
epithelium, alveolar type I pneumocytes, and alveolar type II pneumocytes.
Use of micro-dissected airways to better define metabolism and cytotoxicity in murine bronchiolar
The ACF pattern was recently defined as surgical lung biopsy showing interstitial fibrosis centered on, and extending around, the bronchioles, with or without bronchiolar
inflammation, and the presence of peribronchiolar metaplasia (27) (Table 1; Figure 5, A and B).
Cytologic examination of the bronchiolar
exudate indicated large amounts of mucin with erythrocytes; occasional epithelial cells; and small to moderate numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphoid cells, characteristic of a mild to moderate, subacute, mixed bronchiolitis.
DISCUSSION: These findings confirm the previously reported association between WTC dust exposure and bronchiolar
and interstitial lung disease.
While the bronchial lumens are essentially unaffected secondary to the presence of cartilaginous rings and plates, bronchiolar
luminal patency is greatly affected.
Alveolar and bronchiolar
lumina showed edema and contained variable numbers of macrophages, neutrophils, and erythrocytes mixed with fibrin and cellular debris.
Proximal and midproximal toxic bronchiolar
mucosal injury was present in airways after repetitive Cr(VI) treatment (Figure 3B).
When the alveolated structures are lost, a distorted ectatic terminal bronchiole, lined by bronchiolar
epithelium, is left, which is why the changes of UIP are dominantly subpleural or periseptal, because this is where distal lung acini terminate.
For the first time, staining of the bronchiolar
epithelium was also visible, but not all bronchioles--far from all, in fact--showed this staining.
1973), are carried via the lymph flow to bronchial and bronchiolar
sites, including bronchial-associated lymphatic tissue (BALT), where they are excreted again into the airway lumen.