2008 Blombos Cave 34 BC-AD 237 Sheep, left mandible Henshilwood 1996 Blombos Cave AD 62-344 Sheep, calcaneum
Henshilwood 1996 Boomplaas AD 255-543 Charcoal from Deacon et al.
With the carcass laid flat on its side and the front leg positioned so that it was straight and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body, hind-foot length (HFL) was measured from the calcaneum
(heel bone of hock) to the tip of hoof, and shoulder height (SH) from the superior angle of the scapula (cartilaginous top of shoulder) to the distal tip of the front hoof.
Material--OMNH 74713, proximal right femur; 74714, distal right femur; 74715, left femur ball; 74717, distal left femur; 74720, right calcaneum
3,8) Other common sites of edema include the posterior talus (40%) and the posterior calcaneum
(24%); diffuse patchy-marrow edema can appear throughout the hind-foot.
Plantar flexion is effected mainly by the tendo-Achilles apparatus, which inserts into the calcaneum
and which involves the calf muscles, and the long toe flexors.