The rescue of Assad's son Bashir while fighting the opposition and Islamic State dovetails with Russia's struggle against Chechen jihadis who flock to the black caliphal
banners " and success will bring leverage in Iran and Turkey, where Russia once had muscle.
The new caliphal
claimant, the Islamic State's emir Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, can.
While usually we have a top down approach as seen from the centre, this project takes the view from the regions, to explain the functioning of the caliphal
The city preserves two of the largest mosques (Al Malwiya and Abu Dulaf) and the most unusual minarets, as well as the largest palaces in the Islamic world (the Caliphal
Palace Qasr Al Khalifa, Al Ja'fari, al Ma'shuq and others.
state or other states that succeeded it, as well as awqaf designated by private benefactors for education, paid for it.
His topics include dirham die production in the caliphal
period, Mujib in northern Afghanistan 293/905-302/914, the early years of al-Hasan b Muhammad in the Jabal region of northern Iran 335/946-352/963, and Muhammad the die-engraver in Kakwayhid Isfahan 413/1022-421/1030.
In this period, it became clear that caliphal
power over the law was to be limited to issues of the public sphere, while the jurists maintained authority over the religio-legal spheres.
The church contained strong Islamic influences in architecture, such as decorations and vaults in the Caliphal
It is the historical content of these textile inscriptions, which makes them a valuable resource for historical research into the caliphal
administration of the early Islamic period.
Authorised by the ageing Sultan Abdiilhamit II, the railway had pan-Islamic appeal and substantiated his claim to the caliphal
title by facilitating the annual Haj pilgrimage to Mecca (Landau 1971: 19-20; Quataert 2006: 98).
For example, the somewhat eclectic forms and motifs from Andalusian, Abbasid, and Moghul architecture in works erected by the Sultan-Caliph Abdul Hamit II express his claim to exert caliphal
authority throughout the Muslim world, which consequently was cause for concern to French, British, and Russian imperial powers who claimed authority over large Muslim populations.
The Ibadis preceded the Shii challenge to caliphal
rule by more than a century, but their North African heartland eventually fell to the Fatimid Shiis in the tenth century.