1) includes 3 main training components: a dual calyceal
system (left), a complete left KUB (kidney, ureter, bladder) system (centre) and a tortuous ureter system (right).
The proposed mechanism is the rupture of the calyceal
fornix as a result of increased pressure and the collection of urine in the perinephric space.
distortion and papillary necrosis may be seen on intravenous pyelogram studies.
5-10 mm at 20 wks, no calyceal
dilation--95% chance of resolution
Radiographic findings include uniform renal enlargement, diminished nephrographic density, delayed calyceal
opacification, diminished calyceal
contrast density, and attenuated and distended pyelocalyceal structures.
Fifty-one had increased in size with CT findings consistent with medullary necrosis, renal abscess, or calyceal
0-cm fatty tumour in the calyceal
cavities and extending to the renal pelvis and initial part of ureter (Fig.
With these anatomical landmarks and angles as a guide, we aim to decrease the learning curve of urology trainees for lower calyceal
puncture during PCNL.
A partial nephrectomy specimen may vary from a simple enucleation of the tumor to part of a kidney containing variable portions of calyceal
or renal pelvic collecting system.
, renal pelvis, or ureteral distortion, thickening, or enhancement is more frequently seen with TCC.
This is the first study to enhance ureterovesical jet formation by compressing the renal lodges to reveal any static/obstructive pathology between the calyceal
level and the lower ureteral orifices.
We recommend aiming for percutaneous access via a calyceal
tip every time, with no exceptions.