Table 1 Typical COHb levels in various populations Population COHb levels Nonsmokers <1% Smokers <1 % to 9% Pregnancy <5% Hemolytic anemia <5% Urban polluted areas At least 1 % higher than normal COHb: carboxyhemoglobin
Source: References 3-5 Table 2 Adverse effects of stimulants and occult CO poisoning Stimulants Occult CO poisoning Nervousness Fatigue Headache Headache Irritability Difficulty thinking Dizziness Dizziness Nausea Nausea Insomnia Insomnia Palpitations Heart pounding CO: carbon monoxide Source: References 1,2,8
concentration in fetal cord blood and in blood of mothers who smoked during labor.
levels in carbon monoxide poisoning: do they correlate with the clinical picture?
Some 68% (49) of the workers agreed to a blood test being taken during rest days or prior to starting their work shift, with the aim of determining hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hcto), and carboxyhemoglobin
(COHb), by means of conventional hematic biometry.
In 2005, Masimo introduced rainbow Pulse CO-Oximetry technology, allowing noninvasive and continuous monitoring of blood constituents that previously could only be measured invasively, including total hemoglobin (SpHb(R)), oxygen content (SpOC(TM)), carboxyhemoglobin
(SpCO(R)), methemoglobin (SpMet(R)), and Pleth Variability Index (PVI(R)), in addition to SpO2, pulse rate, and perfusion index (PI).
Prognostic factors associated with outcomes, such as age, history of exposure, consciousness, myocardial injury, lactic acidosis, carboxyhemoglobin
(COHb), serum biochemistry markers, and pallidoreticular lesion (necrosis) on brain image have been proposed.
TABLE 2 Classification of CO poisoning (6) Classification COHb level Signs/symptoms Mild [less than or Patients may or may not develop equal to] 10% symptoms Moderate >10%-<20% Headache, lethargy, fatigue Severe [greater than or Loss of consciousness, confusion, equal to] 20%-25% cardiac ischemia CO, carbon monoxide; COHb, carboxyhemoglobin
also shifts the Hb dissociation curve in the left side, resulting in a reduction in ability of Hb to deliver oxygen to the tissue.
She had also consumed an alcohol level consistent with consumption of around five pints of beer and her carboxyhemoglobin
levels showed she had inhaled carbon monoxide prior to her death.
Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin
and leads to hypoxia.
Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate the relation of blood carboxyhemoglobin
level with presentation finding and clinical properties and to demonstrate neurological and cardiological findings which are indicators of tissue hypoxia in patients followed up because of carbonmonoxide (CO) poisoning.
Increased arterial carboxyhemoglobin
concentrations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.