DeBernardo and colleagues reported that ovarian carcinosarcomas
(OCS), a rare and aggressive malignancy with limited treatment options, share molecular changes similar to that of serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC).
They include serous, clear cell, mucinous, squamous, transitional cell, carcinosarcomas
and undifferentiated tumors.
For example, significant differences have been noted in the frequencies of mutations among the ARID1A, PTEN, PIK3CA, PPP2R1A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, alpha), TP53, and CTNNB1 genes in low-grade endometrioid endometrial carcinoma, high-grade endometrioid endometrial carcinoma, serous endometrial carcinoma, and endometrial carcinosarcomas
, and the pattern of mutations in this 6-gene set has facilitated the histologic reclassification of some endometrial tumors (58).
Its prevalence is believed to be higher than had been previously thought, as many cases of UEC were either reported as endometrioid adenocarcinoma FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) grade (3,6-8) or as high-grade sarcomas and carcinosarcomas
Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is an extremely rare malignancy of the paranasal sinuses that possesses the histopathologic features of both teratomas and carcinosarcomas
6] Recently, with the application of electron microscopy and immunohistochemical staining in pathology, researchers found that the mesenchymal elements of many carcinosarcomas
, which had been diagnosed before, express epithelial markers.
are rare, malignant tumours, which as the name suggests, contain elements of both carcinomas (epithelial cells) and sarcomas (connective tissue) (1).
are rare malignant neoplasms that contain malignant mesenchymal and epithelial elements.
Similarly, pleomorphic uterine carcinosarcomas
, although not associated with arsenic exposure in humans, were once thought to be "collision" tumors but are now thought to derive from a single SC population that has acquired the ability to undergo aberrant, divergent differentiation, producing both mesenchymal and epithelial cancerous components (McCluggage 2002).
The NCCN Guidelines address epithelial ovarian cancer (including borderline or low malignant potential) and less common histopathologies, including malignant germ neoplasms, carcinosarcomas
, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
The second study was presented in a Meet-the-Professor session on Saturday, March 28, titled "Molecular characterization of 361 cases of uterine carcinosarcomas
reveal alterations in the DNA repair and PI3K pathways as potential therapeutic targets" (abstract #3999).
Rabban and coworkers (8) detected no ALK-1 staining among 7 uterine leiomyomas, 6 uterine leiomyosarcomas, 4 uterine carcinosarcomas
, 4 endometrial stromal sarcomas, and 1 uterine lymphangiomyomatosis.