According to the author, it happens for primary articulatory reasons, since, according to the cardinal vowels
scheme claimed by Jones (1957), /i/ is the highest vowel of the vowel system.
i] is a fully close central unrounded vowel, midway between cardinal vowels
1 [i] and 8 [u].
He says that the idea of the Cardinal Vowels
by Daniel Jones is based on the concept that the vowels are limited by vowel space.
For the sound stimuli, cardinal vowels
were taken from an Interactive CD containing a clickable cardinal vowel
chart created by the Department of Phonetics and Linguistics at University College London.
In contrast with the variability observed above, Ladefoged (1971) found the cineradiographic readings of tongue height positions in Ngwe front vowels /i, e, e, ae/ to coincide precisely with Jones's (1918) plotting of cardinal vowels
Further, the tongue positions are described in relationship to the positions assumed in the cardinal vowels
When the subjects merely sang the five cardinal vowels
, each indicated no VPO at any pitch.
Catford (1988) argues that the idea of the cardinal vowels
by Daniel Jones banks on the notion that the vowels are limited by space.
Looking at the cardinal vowels
, we see the first and second formants focusing on the pitches indicated in Figure 4.
This description of Hindko vowels, in reference with cardinal vowels
, offers a detailed comparison with English vowel system to highlight its salient features.
For this author's work on male passaggio, a more user friendly way to keep track of formant locations, at least for some cardinal vowels
, was generated (Figure 1).
The eight cardinal vowels
, established in the early twentieth century by Daniel Jones, were never intended to be the actual vowel articulations of any one language.