Pharmacokinetics of cephalothin
and cephalexin in selected avian species.
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enterocolitica intrinsic resistance to ampicillin, ticarcillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, and cephalothin
has been assigned by the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).
A filter paper disk saturated with the following antibiotics (Mast Diagnostics, Bootle, UK); amikacin (30 [micro]g), gentamicin (10 [micro]g), cefepime (30 [micro]g), ticarcillin (75 [micro]g), piperacillin (100 [micro]g), imipenem (10 [micro]g), colistin (10 [micro]g), rifampicin (5 [micro]g), penicillin G (10 units [micro]g), erythromycin (15 [micro]g), cephalothin
(30 [micro]g), clindamycin (2 [micro]g), cotrimoxazole (25 [micro]g) and ampicillin (10 [micro]g) were dispensed onto the media plate separately.
The antibiotic discs used were Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin with Clavulanic acid, Amikacin, Cephalothin
, Ceftazidime among the systemically used antibiotics and Chloramphenicol, Polymyxin, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Neomycin and Bacitracin among the topically used antibiotics.
For the Gram negative bacteria the antibiotics were: amikacin (AMI, 30 [micro]g), amoxicillin + clavulanate (AMC, 20 + 10 [micro]g), ampicillin (AMP, 10 [micro]g), cephalothin
(CFL, 30 [micro]g), cefepime (COM, 30 [micro]g), cefoxitin (CFO, 30 [micro]g), ceftazidime (CAZ, 30 [micro]g), cefuroxime (CRX, 30 [micro]g), ciprofloxacin (CIP, 5 [micro]g), gentamicin (GEN, 10 [micro]g), meropenem (MER, 10 [micro]g), sulfazotrim (SUT, 23.
12 The antibiotics that were used against gram-positive bacteria were (20 ug of amoxicillin + 10 ug of clavulanate), ceftazidime (30ug), cephalothin
(30ug), clindamycin (2ug), erythromycin (15ug), gentamycin (10ug), oxacillin (1ug), penicillin (10ug) and vancomycin (30ug).
We conducted antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using disk diffusion against a panel of 17 compounds consisting of penicillin G, amoxicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid; cephalothin
, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and cefepime; ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem; marbofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid; gentamicin; tetracycline; florfenicol; and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
Studies on efficacy of antimicrobial agents against Pasteurella multocida was investigated by agar diffusion method that showed high sensitivity to various antibiotics including enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, penicillin G and cephalothin
Other broad spectrum antibiotics such as cephalothin
, carbenicillin, amoxicillin, cefamandole, tobramycin, and vancomycin were incorporated either with bone cement or coating of implants .
Extremely high resistance rates were observed to ampicillin (99%), cephalothin
(95%), cefuroxime (95%), amoxicillin-clavulante (92%), and nitrofurantoin (91%).
The antibiotic tested included ampicillin (10 pg), ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g), chloramphenicol (30 [micro]g), trimethoprim (5 [micro]g), cephalothin
(30 [micro]g), streptomycin (10 [micro]g), nalidixic acid (30 [micro]g), and tetracycline (30 pg).