The Mesoamerican subtribe Thyrsantheminae includes just 21 species, but contains nearly the full range of morphological and ecological diversity in the family: from fully open to tubular flowers, cleistogamy to chasmogamy
, spreading stoloniferous plants to compact rosettes, and from habitats at sea level to 3,000 m in elevation.
Effects of light and nutrient availability on chasmogamy
and cleistogamy in an understory tropical herb, Calathea micans (Marantaceae).
Self-pollination can be favored by cleistogamy, chasmogamy
and self-compatibility, while cross pollination can be favored by dichogamy, herkogamy and self-incompatibility (Frankel & Galun, 1977).
These mechanisms include protogyny, chasmogamy
, heterostyly, self-incompatibility, self-sterility, entomophily, anemophily, and hydrophily.
Evolution of reproductive characteristics in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae): The significance of cleistogamy and chasmogamy
Evolutiion of reproductive characteristics in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae): the significance of cleistogamy and chasmogamy
The balance between chasmogamy
and cleistogamy in Collomia grandiflora (Polemoniaceae).