I believe the conditions applicable to the methyl bromide and chloropicrin
Recognition of the fungicidal properties of chloropicrin
and the enhanced efficacy achieved by addition of methyl bromide lifted this limitation and allowed for a dramatic expansion in the production of fresh strawberries in California.
Eleven pesticides with more than 1 million pounds per year of use in California had insufficient toxicologic and environmental data for hazard weighting (sulfur, petroleum oil, sodium chlorate, copper hydroxide, mineral oil, copper sulfate, chloropicrin
, petroleum distillates, sulfuryl fluoride, calcium hydroxide, and diuron).
Around that time, McPhail said, Montalvo Ranch treated 78 acres of strawberry fields with 300 pounds per acre of pesticides - 67 percent methyl bromide and 33 percent chloropicrin
, or tear gas, which is added to give the odorless gas a scent.
Many perennial crop growers have adopted methyl bromide alternatives such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin
Preplant soil fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) or mixtures of 1,3-D with chloropicrin
(Pic) is widely practiced in the process of replacing almond and stone fruit orchards.
In the United States only a handful of fumigants are registered, including methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), chloropicrin
, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) generating compounds.
Broadcast shank fumigation (or flat fumigation): Traditional strawberry field fumigation that began in the 1960s, in which growers applied MB combined with chloropicrin
to entire fields, which are covered with polyethylene film to hold in the fumigant at concentrations needed to kill soil pests.
When allowed by county regulations, the team also recommends combining 1,3-D with other fumigants called chloropicrin
and metam sodium.
methyl bromide (MB), 98%; chloropicrin
(Pic), 2%, as a warning agent (MBC Concentrate, TriCal Inc.
Traditionally, they used methyl bromide plus chloropicrin
(MB + Pic) as the basis for soil pest control.
As the availability of methyl bromide diminishes, the use of products containing chloropicrin
and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D; Telone II) are becoming the new standard fumigant treatments.