and chorioretinal scars were observed in 89%-100% of infected children, and hydrocephalus (mostly triventricular dilation) in 96% (2,10,12,13).
Ophthalmologic evaluation for chorioretinitis
was interpreted as normal.
In infants, congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with neurologic defects, neurocognitive defects, and chorioretinitis
resulting in serious symptoms like blindness or mental disability (Torgerson and Mastroiacovo, 2013).
Indocyanine green angiographic features in tuberculous chorioretinitis
Atypical presentations include inflammation and swelling of the optic nerve head (manifesting as optic neuritis), motile subretinal larvae, [6,7] and diffuse chorioretinitis
,  BRVO, vitreous haemorrhage, scleritis.
The classic triad of chorioretinitis
, intracranial calcifications and hydrocephalus is found in fewer than 10% of infected infants.
Table 1 Classification of uveitis Type of uveitis Location State of inflammation Anterior Iris Iritis Ciliary body Anterior cyclitis Iris and ciliary body Iridocyclitis Intermediate Vitreous Vitritis Hyalitis Pars planitis Posterior Choroid Choroiditis Retina Retinitis Neuroretinitis Choroid and retina Chorioretinitis
Retinochoroiditis Pan-uveitis All of the above All of the above Table 2 Prednisolone acetate 1% Prednisolone sodium phosphate 0.
Hunger Ford (1990) opined that presence of parasite in eye may cause corneal endothelial damage with clouding of cornea, uveitis, chorioretinitis
West Nile virus has been shown to cause chorioretinitis
The transmission rate of maternal infection to the fetus is estimated to be about 45%; of these, 60% are sub-clinical infection, 9% resulting in death of the fetus and 30% have severe damages such as hydrocephalus, intracerebral calcification, chorioretinitis
and metal retardation [4,5].
Ocular manifestations reported to be associated with dengue infection are mostly posterior segment, such as macular edema, vascular occlusion, vitreous hemorrhage, optic neuropathy, chorioretinitis
, vasculitis with retinal hemorrhages, and cotton wool spots.
Just like in secondary syphilis, the patients with tertiary syphilis can get a systemic involvement with neurosyphilis (asymptomatic, meningeal and vascular, parenchymatous with general paralysis, tabes), cardiovascular syphilis (coronary disease, aortitis, aortic aneurism), ophthalmic involvement (iritis, chorioretinitis
, optic atrophy).