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The scientists found that, compared to their country cousins, city dwellers confronted with a stressful math task showed significantly greater activity in the amygdala and the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex, both regions that help regulate mood and process I stress.
The anterior cingulate - which is found in the front part of the organ - was bigger in left-wingers and liberal-minded people than in Conservative supporters.
Multicenter trials are underway for the subcallosal cingulate and VC/VS targets.
The imaging showed that, when the control subjects were anticipating a painful stimulus, brain activity decreased in the insula, supragenual anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and dorsal brainstem, but there was less of this anticipatory deactivation in the IBS patients.
Mayberg at Emory University in Atlanta and her colleagues suggested that a brain region known as the subgenual cingulate is overactive in people with treatment-resistant depression.
They found that high multitaskers had less brain density in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region responsible for empathy as well as cognitive and emotional control.
The results showed that in lean adolescents, glucose ingestion increased cerebral blood flow in the striatum, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and the prefrontal cortex, all of which are regions of the brain that reside in the corticostriatal-limbic circuitry undergoing significant developmental changes during adolescence, said Dr.
Using functional and structural MR imaging procedures, investigators were able to visualize abnormalities in error responding and gray matter integrity in the part of the brain known as the anterior cingulate cortex, which controls many cognitive functions, including recognizing and responding to mistakes.
Working with laboratory mice, the researchers found higher levels of the enzyme, known as protein kinase M zeta (PKM zeta), in a brain region called the anterior cingulate cortex in injured animals, and identified a gene they believed was involved in producing the enzyme.
Four regions of interest were analyzed: the medial temporal lobe and adjacent hippocampal white matter and the posterior cingulate and adjacent white matter in the splenium.
One, the amygdala, processes fear, while the other, the cingulate, dampens emotional responses.
Activity in the other areas--the cingulate cortex, temporal cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus--suggests that sexually stimulated male marmosets evaluate the quality of potential mates, Snowdon says.