For a critique of his essentialist understanding of this concept, see Martti Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer
of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law 1870-1960 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp.
A member of what translation theorists label the hegemonic language and culture, FitzGerald assumes a paternalistic pose as the civilizer
or improver of the dominated language and culture, Khayyam's Persian," Black writes.
78) Although international law has complex origins and precursors, not until the nineteenth century did it become a profession and legal subdiscipline: Martti Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer
of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law, 1870-1060 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
demonstrated the expansive force of steam, and its value as a mechanical agent; and from that time to this, steam, as the great civilizer
, has only demonstrated the possibilities of the human mind.
Lucy Hutchinson (1620-75), who translated the De Rerum Natura during the 1 1650s, staked a poignant lament for her husband's death on a passive and Lucretian version of the homology between woman and earth, and mourned her husband as a fallen civilizer
England, as Turner keeps presenting it, as the inventor, engineer, benign colonizer, missioner, and civilizer
of the world.
Neihardt, being "essentially a Christianizer and civilizer
," saw the future of Native Americans to lie in assimilation and the rejection of the "old ways" (1985, 129).
Without necessarily embracing an essentialist approach that would take for granted the supreme value of the mother as civilizer
, Emecheta clearly endorses the vision offered by Shaw of women's autonomous communal activity as a source of strength.
In a more recent work, Koskenniemi argues that international law stands to promote formalism, which embodies a "culture of resistance to power, a social practice of accountability, openness, and equality whose status cannot be reduced to the political positions of any one of the parties whose claims are treated within it" (The Gentler Civilizer
of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law, 1870-1960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002) at 500).
Britain's role as civilizer
is neither permanent nor stable.
Thus the Gospel as salvation and civilizer
heavily depended on native messengers, who were considered essential participants in the missionary task.
citing Martti Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer
of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law 1870-1960 (2002)).