It helps to the generalization of

classical probability theory, fuzzy set, fuzzy logic to their respective domains.

However, when the probabilities of rare events are very difficult to assess or events occur only once, the

classical probability methodology may not be suitable because there is not enough statistic data [3, 4].

Probability of NCS is a generalization of the

classical probability in which the chance that an event A = <[A.

13] Quantum information theorists have further shown quantum theory to be consistent with the notion of entanglement, while

classical probability theory is not--suggesting that

classical probability theory is a special case of quantum theory.

The content of most of the teaching modules fell within Introduction to and Basics of Probability and Statistics, covering definition and properties of probability, basics of descriptive and inferential statistics, discrete random variables, expected value,

classical probability distributions, and central limit theorem.

The topics include multi-object modeling and filtering, implementing

classical probability hypothesis density and cardinalized probability hypothesis density filters, joint tracking and sensor-bias estimation, exact closed-form multi-target filter, random finite set filters for superpositional sensors, and single-target sensor management.

Also, he suggested an extension of the

classical probability and imprecise probability to "neutrosophic probability".

Returning to the setting of

classical probability theory, it is a

Noncommutative probability, also called quantum probability or algebraic probability theory, is an extension of

classical probability theory where the algebra of random variables is replaced by a possibly noncommutative algebra.

1], and the

classical probability density function is [c.

Abraham De Moivre; setting the stage for

classical probability and its applications.

In

classical probability, one tries to figure out every possible outcome and make predictions without collecting data.