The fact that the stigmata were receptive and the opening of anthers occurred before the calyptra fall shows cleistogamy
, a form of self-pollination reported in other species (MULLINS et al.
Flowers of Psittacanthus species play an important role as nectar or pollen reward especially for hummingbirds (Rosero-Lasprilla & Sazima 2004, Azpeitia & Lara 2006, Wilson & Calvin 2006), although ornithophily appears to be facultative as successful cleistogamy
is likely to occur (Suaza-Gaviria et al.
In addition to having showy blossoms, certain species possess a trait known as cleistogamy
, meaning they are capable of self-pollination by means of tiny, barely noticeable flowers that resemble unopened buds.
The Mesoamerican subtribe Thyrsantheminae includes just 21 species, but contains nearly the full range of morphological and ecological diversity in the family: from fully open to tubular flowers, cleistogamy
to chasmogamy, spreading stoloniferous plants to compact rosettes, and from habitats at sea level to 3,000 m in elevation.
in Centaurea melitensis (Asteraceae): capitulum variability and spatio-temporal development patterns.
in the genus Podostemum (Podostemaceae).
Genus Floral sex/Breeding system References Tillandsia Hermaphrodite/ Xenogamy, Gilmartin & Brown, Cleistogamy
1985; Gardner, 1986 Hechtia, Dyckia, Unisexual, bisexual/ Benzing, 2000; Cottendorfia, Polygamomonoecy, monoecy, Lenz, 1995; Lindmania xenogamy Ramirez et al.
Monomorphism reduced gene flow and cleistogamy
in rara and common species of Lespedeza (Fabaceae).
Therefore, barley is considered as a self-pollinator with a high degree of cleistogamy
(Giles et al.
The selection of cleistogamy
and heteromorphic diaspores.
Instead, impatiens undergo cleistogamy
- hidden fertilization - whereby flower buds that never open are self-fertilized internally, eventually forming seed capsules that, at the slightest touch, explode.
Evolution of reproductive characteristics in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae): The significance of cleistogamy