6) Resumptive pronouns are bound pronouns that cliticize
on verbs and nouns.
In such circumstances, the pronominal NP may be realized as the object of an overt preposition, but it may also cliticize
with the verb, in which case it may generally occur post- or pre-verbally.
Whereas in Hebrew oot/et--does not suffix or cliticize
to the verb, Noldeke (1893: 104) sees Palestinian Jewish Aramaic as having taken this step in the etymologically identical morpheme.
In languages that have pronominal clitics such as Spanish, both the direct and indirect object can cliticize
in the same clause as evident in Spanish example (12).
If anything, cliticization can be seen as a test for grammaticalization, in the sense that the more grammatical an element, the more likely it is to cliticize
Therefore they have to combine with a lexical host, as in the French sentence Je t'aime where both the a-tonic subject pronoun (je) and the object pronoun (te) cliticize
onto the verb.
In the absence of one of the markers mentioned in Table 2, the only other way in which Otomi subordinate clauses are distinct from main clauses is the occurrence of certain tense markers, which code person plus Contemporality, Posteriority or Anteriority, and cliticize
to the verb.
The enclitics may have a demonstrative function when they cliticize
to pronouns and nouns:
In other words, suspended affixation is nothing else but the cliticization of the inflected copula to just those elements that it is allowed to cliticize
in general, with the only difference that these complements are conjoined.
Clearly, this form is not an enclitic, since there is nothing in any of the examples in (7) or (8) for an enclitic form of the article to cliticize
to--it occurs following a consonant in (7a) and in absolute initial position in (7b) and (8).
Lehmann 1995), the adverbial element sehe shows a strong tendency to cliticize
to the verb, thus losing its tones and becoming an affix -se.
Erteschik-Shir (2005) assumes that the weak pronoun cliticizes
onto the verb and is carried along with it in verb-second movement.