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Another similarity between the crayfish and cancerous tumors is they both go through a phenomenon called clonal evolution.
Summary: Researchers hope that the adaptability of the clonal crayfish leads to breakthrough on how cancer spreads
Within-host heterogeneity may arise through 2 mechanisms: 1) by reinfection or simultaneous infection with multiple strains, which results in a polyclonal (mixed) infection, or 2) by accumulation of mutations, which results in clonal heterogeneity (4).
Editing the pluripotent stem cell genome relies on the survival of single cells to create clonal cell lines.
Editing the pluripotent stem cell genome relies heavily on the survival of single cells to establish clonal cell lines.
Dwarf bamboo, a dominant understory clonal plant in temperate forests, is recognized to be an key factor for forest regeneration.
After the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was induced with a medium containing insulin, the cells undergo several rounds of mitosis referred to as mitotic clonal expansion at an early event of differentiation [15,16], A transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-[beta], is required for the mitotic clonal expansion [15], After mitotic clonal expansion, the preadipocyte cells express the key transcription factor, PPAR[gamma], for adipocyte differentiation, which plays essential roles for inducing the adipocyte specific PPAR-[gamma] target genes such as Glut-4 and fatty acid binding protein [10], The 3T3-L1 cells gradually increase lipid droplet size and number during the differentiation process.
s study showed a small clonal B-lymphocyte population in the bone marrow, which was CD5[sup]−.
While such re-assortment is essentially random in nature and thus constantly samples a wide range of "sequence space" or potential binding surfaces, those individual B and T cells whose recombinant markers find a "non-self" match are positively selected for and undergo clonal expansion as the basis for cell-mediated immunity.
Dysplasia represents a morphologic phenotype of neoplastic clonal cells harboring somatic mutations and/or cytogenetic aberrations, although dysplasia can also be observed in benign conditions, such as treatment with certain medications, AIDS, and therapeutic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration.