Which, in order to analysis cyclic phenomena, must be a closed curve
hence a circular component.
Plainly a borderline closed curve
of the figure which has the hole surrounds inwardly all figures except the figure itself and figures which its other borderline closed curves
surround inwardly respectively; yet the borderline closed curve
surrounds outwardly the figure and those figures which the other borderline closed curves
surround inwardly respectively, therefore we need merely to prove all figures at a planar map from any spherical map, to wit O.
The equations are generated by a complex vector field that is elliptic everywhere except along a simple closed curve
, explains Meziani (mathematics, Florida International U.
x'[member of][GAMMA]]d(x,x') between a point x and the closed curve
[GAMMA], here d(x,x') is the usual Euclidean distance in [R.
Now it's true that a parabola is an ellipse with it foci an infinite distance apart, so if we consider the parabola a closed curve
at infinity it is a closed curve
, but I doubt if many mathematicians would think it topologically equivalent to a closed curve
lies in a region defined by the intersection of two circles, a plane closed curve
, and the half plane on the right of a vertical line.
Let [gamma] be a closed curve
of length 2[pi]r: If x : g [right arrow] [R.
In his mathematical project, Pardon proved that a closed curve
can be made convex without permitting any two points on the curve to get closer to one another.