Which, in order to analysis cyclic phenomena, must be a

closed curve hence a circular component.

Plainly a borderline

closed curve of the figure which has the hole surrounds inwardly all figures except the figure itself and figures which its other borderline

closed curves surround inwardly respectively; yet the borderline

closed curve surrounds outwardly the figure and those figures which the other borderline

closed curves surround inwardly respectively, therefore we need merely to prove all figures at a planar map from any spherical map, to wit O.

The equations are generated by a complex vector field that is elliptic everywhere except along a simple

closed curve, explains Meziani (mathematics, Florida International U.

x'[member of][GAMMA]]d(x,x') between a point x and the

closed curve [GAMMA], here d(x,x') is the usual Euclidean distance in [R.

Now it's true that a parabola is an ellipse with it foci an infinite distance apart, so if we consider the parabola a

closed curve at infinity it is a

closed curve, but I doubt if many mathematicians would think it topologically equivalent to a

closed curve.

lies in a region defined by the intersection of two circles, a plane

closed curve, and the half plane on the right of a vertical line.

Let [gamma] be a

closed curve of length 2[pi]r: If x : g [right arrow] [R.

In his mathematical project, Pardon proved that a

closed curve can be made convex without permitting any two points on the curve to get closer to one another.