What level of association must a group have to be labeled a cobelligerent
107-40) targets those who perpetrated and supported the 9/11 terrorist attacks, identified as Al Qaeda and the Taliban, but the executive branch has interpreted the authorization to include targeting forces that are cobelligerent
with these two groups, so-called "associated forces.
Hardly a saint, however, Bowery was a complicated man: muse to Lucian Freud, cobelligerent
of Michael Clark and Charles Atlas, thorn to straight thinking everywhere.
8, 2011, at Al (describing an undisclosed memo from OLC that analyzed the constitutionality of using lethal force against an American citizen located in Yemen and asserted to be a cobelligerent
of al Qaeda).
If President Truman and Prime Minister Atlee had set a precedent of military overflights during a Cold War "conflict," they did so under Chapter VI of the United Nations charter, which, their legal experts affirmed, also justified missions over the Soviet Union because it was an "unannounced cobelligerent
They now see us as a useful cobelligerent
in their internal struggle for power against their enemies in the Baghdad government and the Kurds.
on playing the role of chief arbiter, if not sole peacemaker, when in fact it has been cobelligerent
In this regard, Wilson also insisted that the United States not become a partner in the alliance against the Central Powers but should remain an associate or cobelligerent
thus maintaining an independent political posture.
There would be a cost if supplies were choked by fear of gunfire, but there is certain to be a bigger cost if the United States keeps the war going by assuming the role of a cobelligerent
, as it did briefly in Lebanon.
Having formal allies as opposed to relying on ad hoc partnerships also yields a second and related military benefit: it eases the process of mobilizing cobelligerents
for action in a crisis.
It takes but limited imagination to see that the AUMF might apply to Islamist or jihadist groups and persons who could fairly be cast as cobelligerents
with al Qaeda and its affiliates in such war or terrorism against the United States.
The executive branch has long argued that any such extensions remain justified from a domestic law perspective on the theory that the AUMF implicitly includes authority to use force against any entities that emerge as cobelligerents
of al Qaeda or the Afghan Taliban--a status the executive branch refers to as becoming an "associated force.