It indicated 4 m of colluvium
and/or sand diamicton overlying highly broken granodiorite to 52 m depth.
These rice phytoliths are of bilobe and fan morphologies (Figure 9) and can be confirmed as Neolithic, rather than disturbed modern, due to the observed absence of any similar phytoliths in the protective colluvium
above the Kamassi cultural layer.
Each sample was a mixture of soil that originated most commonly from the weathering of colluvium
, bedrock, and loess.
The area is characterized by post-mineral colluvium
and gravel cover that obscures the underlying bedrock, but occurs immediately west of, and on the margins of, a small hill where a dacite dome sub-crops.
These are more abundant in the Holocene colluvium
(N = 77 artefacts), which also has the highest diversity of raw materials and the majority of the retouched implements (Tables 2 and 3).
The core at 350 m on the lower footslope was similar and was capped with what appeared to be poorly sorted silt, sand and gravel colluvium
Stability analyses carried out assuming the potential slip surface and shear strength of the colluvium
mass overlying the sliding surface gave high factors of safety.
At the latter site the soft substratum, such as alluvium or colluvium
with fine-grained soil, is devoid of semishrubs and is partially populated by annuals only during rainy years.
11, suggests that the cracking is caused by water in an underlying layer of rocky, sandy colluvium
a garimpo, an area with recent extensive alluvial and colluvium
It coincided rather with sporadic humid periods, during which enough water was running from the upper sections of the cliffs for local alluvial deposition that reworked the colluvium
near the base of the cliffs.
Although glaciomarine mud is found in coastal areas of western Newfoundland, many of the documented examples involve till or re-mobilized colluvium